An English Ancestry - Documentary and DNA

Foreword

A little foreword. The following is not some sort of ridiculous claim to being "100% British", pure, or any other sort of nonsense.  The English are after all, a very admixed population.  It is just what I have found.  If at any time I should happen upon ancestors from anywhere from Afghanistan, to Zimbabwe, I'd be equally proud of them.

This blog post enables interested parties to compare the documentary genealogy of an East Anglian, to the DNA for ancestry tests.  Warning - it could make you lose some trust in some DNA for ancestry test results!

Myself

An amateur genealogist and genetic genealogist.  Born in an English family, in Norfolk, East Anglia, England, UK.  I first became interested in traditional genealogy over twenty eight years ago.  I still live in Norfolk, the home of the majority of my recorded ancestors.

GEDMatch

  • 23andMe kit. M551698
  • FT-DNA Family Finder kit. T444495

The Paper Trail and Family History

I was born in Norfolk, to a local family.  My current gedcom database includes records of 1,882 family members and ancestors for my children.  I currently have records of 274 of my direct ancestors.  All were in South-East England, predominantly in Norfolk, and appear to have been English.  Most of my recorded ancestors over the past 330 years, appear to have been rural working class.  They most likely descended predominantly from the medieval English peasantry.

Here is a recent pedigree fan chart demonstrating recorded coverage of my direct ancestry over the past 11 generations:

Below, birth locations of my ancestors for past six generations:

Father's Ancestry

On my father's side, I currently have 118 of his direct ancestors recorded.  The majority were in Norfolk, but some distant ancestors on record also lived in Oxfordshire, London, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, and Berkshire.  This map demonstrates the ancestral events in his database, over the past 330 years:

Locations of my father's ancestry include:

Attleborough, Norfolk; East Dereham, Norfolk; Ditchingham, Norfolk;  Gressenhall, Norfolk; Norwich, Norfolk; Swanton Morley, Norfolk; Hempnall, Norfolk; Hockham, Norfolk; Tasburgh, Norfolk; Coston, Norfolk; Hardingham, Norfolk; Banham, Norfolk; New Buckenham, Norfolk;  Saham Toney, Norfolk; Saxlingham-Nethergate, Norfolk;  St Michaels, South Elmham, Suffolk; Wrentham, Suffolk; Etton, Cambridgeshire; Maxey, Cambridgeshire / Northamptonshire, Holywell, Lincolnshire;  Bethnal Green, London; Lambeth, London; Shoreditch, London; Lewisham, London; Harpsden, Oxfordshire; Rotherfield Peppard, Oxfordshire; Whitchurch, Oxfordshire; Shiplake, Oxfordshire; Deddington, Oxfordshire; Ipsden, Oxfordshire;  Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire;  North Aston, Oxfordshire; Long Wittenham, Berkshire, Abingdon, Berkshire, 

Surnames within my father's recorded direct ancestry, include:

Aimes, Barber, Barker, Baxter, Beckett, Bennett, Blaxhall, Bligh, Bradfield, Brooker, Brucker, Crutchfield, Dennis, Durran, Edney, Ellis, Freeman, Gardiner, Goodram, Gregory, Harris, Harrison, Hedges, Hewitt, Hill, Neale, Peach, Read, Riches, Rippon, Saunderson, Seymore, Shawers, Shilling, Smith, Snelling, Sniss, Waine, Wick.

My paternal grandmother as an infant, with her older brother circa 1905, Norwich, Norfolk.

Mother's Ancestry

On my mother's side, I currently have 138 of her direct ancestors recorded.  They were all in East Anglia - almost all in the County of Norfolk, with a few distant ancestors over the county border in Suffolk.  Her ancestry over the past three centuries has a particularly dense cluster in Broadland, East Norfolk.  This map demonstrates the ancestral events in her database, over the past 330 years:

Locations of my mother's ancestry include:

Hassingham, Norfolk; Reedham, Norfolk; Acle, Norfolk; Freethorpe, Norfolk;  South Burlingham, Norfolk; Wymondham, Norfolk; Tunstall, Norfolk; Halvergate, Norfolk; Lingwood, Norfolk; Cantley, Norfolk; Salhouse, Norfolk; Woodbastwick, Norfolk; Rackheath, Norfolk; Southwood, Norfolk; Postwick, Norfolk;  Strumpshaw, Norfolk; Beighton, Norfolk; Moulton, Norfolk; Brundall, Norfolk; Chedgrave, Norfolk; Loddon, Norfolk; Limpenhoe, Norfolk;  Langley, Norfolk; Brandon Parva, Norfolk; Repps with Bastwick, Norfolk;  Bunwell, Norfolk; Alburgh, Norfolk; Buckenham Ferry, Norfolk; Repps-with-Bastwick, Norfolk; Rollesby, Norfolk, South Walsham, Norfolk; Southwood, Norfolk; Spooner Row, Norfolk; Garvestone, Norfolk; Sprowston & Beeston St Andrews, Norfolk; Cawston, Norfolk; Whitwell, Norfolk; Beccles, Suffolk; Wrentham, Suffolk.

Surnames within my mother's recorded direct ancestry include:

Annison,  Barker, Briggs, Britiff, Briting, Brooks, Brown, Coleman, Cossey, Creess, Curtis, Dawes, Daynes, Dingle, Dove, Edwards, Gaul, Ginby, Goffen, Goffin,  Gorll, Gunton, Gynby, Hagon, Hardiment, Harding, Hardyman, Harrington, Key, Larke, Lawn, Ling, Marsh, Maye, Merrison,  Mingay, Moll, Mollett, Morrison, Nevel, Neville, Nicholes, Nicholls, Nichols, Norton, Osborne, Page, Porter, Quantrill, Ransby, Read, Rix, Rose, Rowland, Sales, Shepherd, Shilling, Smith, Springall, Symonds, Tammas, Tammas-Tovell, Thacker, Thurkettle, Tovel, Tovell,  Waters, Wymer, Yallop

My maternal grandparent's wedding at Limpenhoe, Norfolk in 1932.  Includes not only my maternal grandparents, but all four maternal side great grandparents, and one 2xgreat grandmother.

Total ancestors in generations 2 to 12 is 258.

Image.  My father's brother in Korea (Royal Norfolk Regiment) 1952.

Image: My paternal grandmother as a little girl in Norwich, Norfolk, circa 1908, with her father, my great grandfather Fred Smith, a wheelwright, born at Attleborough, Norfolk, in 1866.

Image: My paternal great grandfather John Henry Brooker, born 1884 at Deptford, London, with his partner Mabel at Sheerness, Kent, in 1933.

Image: My great great grandfather William Baxter, born at Gressenhall Workhouse, Norfolk, in 1846.

Image:  My great grandfather Fred Smith, born at Attleborough, Norfolk in 1866, with his young son Lenny.

That is my documented family history and ancestry.  I would dare postulate that most of my ancestors previous to this record, most likely descend from the peasants and freemen of medieval East Anglia, and also in the Thames Valley of Oxfordshire, and Berkshire.  What else can I add?  

The Genetics

So how does the above documented genealogy compare with the genetic genealogy?  Let's see.

First of all, the auDNA (Autosomal DNA tests for ancestry), generally agree that I'm 100% European, and at least mainly North-west European.  I can't argue with that.  At that level auDNA tests work reasonably.  Let's look at my personal auDNA tests for ancestry, see what they report:

Living DNA Standard mode

This new DNA test, with a very rich and good quality data set for the British Isles, has so far proven to be by far the most accurate that I have so far commissioned.  I recommend it particularly for testers with significant British ancestry, as it tries to break British ancestry down into 21 regions.

100% European
Regional:
74% Great Britain & Ireland
10% Europe (South)
7% Europe (North and West)
10% Europe (unassigned).

Sub-regional:

39% East Anglia
8% South Central England
5% South East England
5% Lincolnshire

2.5% Cornwall
2.4% North Yorkshire
2% South England
1.9% Devon
1.6% Central England
1.5% North West England
1.3% South Yorkshire
1.2% Northumbria

3.5% unassigned Great Britain & Ireland

10% Tuscany (Europe South)
5% Scandinavia (Europe North and West)
2% Germanic (Europe North and West)
9.7% Europe unassigned.

The Living DNA Test was surprisingly good at detecting many of my ancestors at sub-regional level, into the English regions.  Not perfect by any means - but with an impressive accuracy compared with any other auDNA tests for ancestry that I have investigated.  The Scandinavian, Germanic, and some of the unassigned percentages I am confident, were really East Anglian.  The Tuscan percentage, I cannot explain - but I will be watching out for other SE English test results, to see if it is a background pattern.

23andMe V4 chip, Ancestry Composition speculative mode (before any phasing):

100% European:  94% NW European.  3% Southern European.  3% Broadly European.

Broken down to:

32% British & Irish

27% French & German

7% Scandinavian

29% Broadly NW European

2% Broadly Southern European (including 0.5% Iberian)

23andMe V4 chip, Ancestry Composition speculative mode phased with one parent (mother):

100% European:  96% NW European.  1.8% Southern European.  2.2% Broadly European.

37% British & Irish  (23% from father, 14% from mother)

22% French & German  (12% from father, 10% from mother)

1% Scandinavian  (from mother alone)

36% Broadly NW European  (23% from father, 13% from mother)

2% Broadly Southern European (1% from father, 1% from mother)

The 23andMe test for ancestry fails to recognise English - and commonly splits our English ancestry into British & Irish, French & German, Scandinavian, Broadly North west European, and often with a small percentage of Southern European.  However, it is NOT the worse auDNA test for ancestry by any means.

FT-DNA Family Finder My Origins 2:0

97% European

Broken into:

51% British Isles

46% West and Central Europe

Traces (<2%):

  • Southeast Europe
  • Western Middle East
  • Ashkenazi

FT-DNA Family Finder My Origins 1:0 (Until April 2017)

100% European.

Broken into:

36% British Isles
32% Southern Europe
26% Scandinavia
6% Eastern Europe

I was disappointed with the My Origins 1:0 result.  Very off the mark.


Ancestry.com


Results coming soon

auDNA Tests for Ancestry - a conclusion

The tests prove very good at identifying that I am pretty much 100% European, and usually see me as mainly North-West European.  Ironically, as my Y-DNA below demonstrates, I do have some distant Asian ancestry on that particular line.  The only test that might some how pick this up is the latest FT-DNA My Origins (2:0), but it is probably coincidental.

The tests in general, are not so good at identifying me as English, or even as British.  In the cases of the FT-DNA, Ancestry.com and 23andMe tests, they have not made any attempt to create reference data sets for English populations, in order to distinguish their medieval (and earlier) admixture between older British, and Continental populations.  Instead, they tend to bundle English with Irish, Welsh, and Scottish.  As a result, English testers receive confusing results with lower than expected levels of British / Irish, and percentages of French, German, Scandinavian, and Southern European that they are wrongly assured are the results of recent family admixture from those parts of Europe.  Only Living DNA has made an effort to untangle this issue.

I accept that my results are consistently atypical for a British tester, even perhaps an extreme for an English tester.  They are more Continental than the average.  Sometimes French.  Sometimes Germanic, Sometimes Scandinavian.  I cannot account for this with my documented and recorded family history, which is localised, rural, totally South-East English, and strongly East Anglian.  I receive lower than average (for a British person of British recorded ancestry) British ancestry from all three DNA test businesses.  The only answer that I can see, is that my ancestry is so strongly rural and localised in East Anglia, that I have higher than average admixture from the 5th to 10th Century AD immigration events - the Anglo-Saxon, and perhaps Anglo-Danish, and Anglo-Norman.  It isn't really a surprise - particularly when you look at the above map of my mother's recorded ancestry.

This does though raise the question, how much are these auDNA tests affected by background population admixture?

The second aspect to my results, is that they keep producing a Southern European influence.  On 23andMe, this manifests itself as only a small percentage - but phasing reveals that I inherited it from both parents.  I surveyed 18 English testers on 23andMe, and on speculative mode, no less than 16 received small percentages of Southern European.  Therefore, it would in this case appear to be a case of population background.  However, FT-DNA 1:0 threw a whopping 32% Southern European at me, but then retracted that in the new version.  23andMe hints at Iberian.  DNA.land suggests North Italian and Balkan.  Then Living DNA suggests 9.6% Tuscany!  I cannot account for these sort of percentages within my known recorded genealogy.  I'm currently open minded to having unknown Southern European ancestors within the past ten generations, or to it being some sort of English population background signal, perhaps related to unknown prehistoric admixture, Roman British admixture, Norman Medieval admixture, or a combination.

I want to discuss and look at third party analysis of these results further down in this post, but first, I want to report my DNA Haplogroups, as I feel that they are more precise:


My Haplogroups

My Y-DNA Haplogroup

This is the haplogroup that you inherit on your direct paternal line, from your father, from his father, and back in time.  I have tested my Y-DNA at 23andMe, then FT-DNA Y111, Big Y, and have had further analysis of my raw data at YFull, and FullGenome Corp.  In other words, it has had a lot of investigation!

Y Haplogroup L (M20)

This is regarded as rare in Europe, and generally thought of a minority haplogroup spread across Western, Central, and Southern Asia.  Going further downstream, I currently reach:

Y Haplotype L1b2c (L-SK1414)

This is regarded as a very rare sub clade, of a rare haplogroup!  The FT-DNA Y Haplogroup L Project, currently contains only five SNP confirmed L-SK1414, and thirteen STR predicted L-SK1414.  I know of one other SNP confirmed sample, and a few more STR predicted.  The confirmed (including myself) are from: Southern England (English), Lebanon (Druze), Turkey, USA (German) and Makran, SW Pakistan (Baluchi).  The STR predicted are from Southern England, France, Russia, Kuwait, UAE, Eastern Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

I currently regard the origin of Y hg L1b2c as most likely to be in the region of Iran and Iraq.  I believe that I most likely had a single Y ancestor, that travelled from Asia to Southern England sometime between 2,000 years ago, and 500 years ago.  A "medieval" Asian traveller".  No autosomal DNA tests have so far yielded any evidence of any Asian ancestry above that expected for an English person.  Therefore, any auDNA evidence has likely been washed out by genetic recombination.

My earliest documented surname ancestor on record is my 6xgreat grandfather, John Brooker of Long Wittenham, Berkshire, born circa 1725.  Some of the STR predicted L-SK1414 descend from a Thomas Chandler, that lived about the same time (early-mid C18 AD) at Basingstoke, which is only 32 miles from Long Wittenham.  Most likely, John Brooker and Thomas Chandler shared a common Y ancestor.

Red are L-SK1414. 

FT-DNA currently see my known haplotype as L-FGC51036 (downstream of SK1414).  YFull currently list my haplotype as L-FGC51074 (SK1414).

My mt-DNA Haplogroup

This is the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that you inherit on your direct maternal line, from your mother, from her mother, and back in time.  I have tested my mtDNA at 23andMe, then FT-DNA mtFull Sequence. My 23andMe raw data was also correctly predicted by the James Lick mthap analyser website and by WeGene.  In other words, it has also had a lot of correlation and investigation!

MT Haplogroup H (Helen)

This is the most common mtDNA haplogroup in Europe, but it is also common in Asia, where it is believed to have originated.  Possibly originating in Arabia, before moving up to Central Asia.  Further downstream?

MT Haplogroup Branch H6a1a8

H6a1, based on studies of ancient DNA to date, most likely originated on the Pontic and Caspian Steppes of Asia. It has been found in the ancient DNA of human remains, from the Copper Age Steppe pastoralist Yamnaya Culture.  H6a1 and H6a1a have both been found in the ancient DNA of human remains, from the Early Bronze Age East European Corded Ware Culture.  No H6a1 or descendant branches have yet been recovered from earlier contexts in Europe.

Therefore it would appear that my mtDNA was carried into Europe from the Eurasian Steppes during the Early Bronze Age, as a part of the great Yamna expansion of that time.  Most haplogroups associated with this expansion have been male Y haplogroups, which makes H6a1 of particular interest, because it was carried into Europe by Steppe women.

I haven't found enough current data on branch H6a1a8 to determine when or how it entered Lowland Britain, but it most likely formed during the Bronze or Iron Age, and so far, I've mainly seen North American and Austrasian H6a1a8 testers that feel that they most likely have British or Irish maternal ancestry.

I trace my direct maternal (mtDNA) line to my 6xgreat grandmother, Sarah Hardyman (nee Briting), who lived nearby at Bunwell, Norfolk, and was born circa 1725.

Above image by User:Dbachmann [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Okay, enough of my haplogroups, let's return to more auDNA evidence, and then look at Ancient Origins.

Other Third Party auDNA for ancestry analysis services

GedMatch.com. Eurogenes K13 (using my 23andMe data)

On Single Population Sharing, it rates my DNA against the closest references.  In order of closest to not so close, the top five are:

1 South_Dutch 3.89
2 Southeast_English 4.35
3 West_German 5.22
4 Southwest_English 6.24
5 Orcadian 6.97

On four populations admixing?

1 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Valencia + Swedish @ 2.087456
2 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Murcia + Swedish @ 2.147237
3 Norwegian + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 2.216714
4 Danish + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 2.225334
5 Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Swedish @ 2.230991

Alternatively, running my FT-DNA Family Finder auDNA file through Eurogenes K13 gives me:

1 Southeast_English @ 4.276322
2 South_Dutch @ 4.559027
3 West_German @ 6.230592
4 Southwest_English @ 6.575822
5 Orcadian @ 7.239489

and on four populations admixing:

1 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Valencia + Swedish @ 1.864642
2 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + Swedish @ 1.919987
3 Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Swedish @ 1.928191
4 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Murcia + Swedish @ 1.955522
5 Norwegian + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 1.958800

Gedmatch.com. Eurogenes EU Test K15 (using my 23andMe data)


Using Oracle for single population first, the top five closest:

1 Southwest_English 2.7
2 South_Dutch 3.98
3 Southeast_English 4.33
4 Irish 6.23
5 West_German 6.25

1 Southwest_English + Southwest_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + West_Norwegian @ 1.080952
2 Irish + North_Dutch + Southwest_English + Spanish_Galicia @ 1.111268
3 North_Dutch + Southwest_English + Spanish_Galicia + West_Scottish @ 1.282744
4 Southeast_English + Southwest_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + West_Norwegian @ 1.295819
5 North_Dutch + North_Dutch + Southwest_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 1.304939

Gedmatch.com. MDLP K16 Modern (FT-DNA File)

1 German 2.2
2 French 3.99
3 French 4.11
4 French 4.23
5 French 4.27
6 Scottish 4.68
7 Scottish 4.87
8 Scottish 4.88
9 Welsh 4.97
10 English 5.18

1   86.6% German + 13.4% Scottish @ 1.81
2   87.5% German + 12.5% Orcadian @ 1.87
3   81.1% German + 18.9% Irish @ 1.88
4   84.5% German + 15.5% English @ 1.94
5   90.3% German + 9.7% Norwegian @ 1.98

DNA.land (3rd party auDNA raw file analysis)

23andMe V4 raw file for myself on DNA.land:

100% West Eurasian.
77% North West European
19% South European (broken into 13% Balkan / 6.1% South/Central European
2.4% Finnish
1.3% Ambiguous

FT-DNA FF raw file for myself on DNA.land:
100% West Eurasian
75% North West European
25% Balkan

WeGene

  1. 99.96% French
  2. 0.04% Others

My 2xgreat grandfather, Samuel "Fiddler" Curtis.  Born at Hassingham, Norfolk in 1852.

My 2xgreat grandmother Sarah Thacker (nee Daynes), born at Besthorpe, Norfolk in 1845.

Image: Four generations of a Norfolk family.  The baby is my aunt, holding her, grandmother Ivy, behind her, my great grandfather Sam Tammas-Tovell, the elderly lady, my 2xgreat grandmother Eliza Tammas-Tovell (nee Lawn) born at Tunstall, Norfolk in 1849.

My late grandfather "Krewjer" Curtis, holding my young mother.  On crutches behind them, my great grandmother Flo' Curtis (nee Key) born at Freethorpe, Norfolk in 1885.

Ancient Origins (auDNA calculators)

Neanderthal Ancestry

23andMe V4 chip

Neanderthal ancestry 2.9% DNA (82nd percentile)  23andMe average European tester is 2.7%

WeGene analysis of above 23andMe raw data

3.325% Neanderthal proportion of more than 81.94% of the users WeGene (Chinese based DNA service).

Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherer ancestry

My Y line as we have seen, was most likely in the area of modern day Iran or Iraq, perhaps in the Euphrates and Tigris valleys, or perhaps in the Zagros Mountains, hunting animals such as the Ibex.  My mt-DNA line was most likely in a hunter-gatherer band somewhere in Asia.  Perhaps Central Asia.  What about my other Ice Age ancestors?

David Wesolowski's K7 Basal-rich test

Villabruna-related

The Villabruna cluster represents the DNA found in 13 individuals in Europe from after 14,000 years ago.  They were Late Ice Age hunter-gatherers.  They appear to have links with the Near East.  The current thought is that they replaced earlier groups of hunter-gatherers in Europe.  The DNA of people in the Middle East and Europe pulled together at this time, and they may represent an expansion from the South-East.  Much of the Aegean Sea would have been dry, with low sea levels (glaciation), so the migration may have been easy.  It is believed that they had dark skin, and blue eyes.  They were possibly, the last hunter-gatherers of Europe and the Middle East.  They may have contributed to our DNA both through or either, later Asian or European admixtures.

David gives the English average as 56.7%.  My result is 57.1%

Basal-rich

The Basal Eurasians are a hypothetical "ghost" population derived from DNA studies.  It is suggested that they splintered from other modern humans 45,000 years ago, presumably outside of Africa, somewhere around the Middle East.  They significantly contributed DNA to the Early Neolithic Farmers of the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia, and consequently, on to all of us modern West Eurasians.  

 David gives the English average as 26.5%.  My result is 28.8%

Ancient North Eurasian

Another Ice Age hunter-gatherer "Ghost" population, but this one has been associated with human remains and an Upper Palaeolithic culture (Mal'ta-Buret') at Lake Baikal, Siberia.  We know that it significantly contributes to modern West Eurasians, through earlier admixture on the Eurasian Steppes.  Copper Age pastoralists then carried it westwards into Europe with their later expansion.

David gives the English average as 16.6%.  My result is 14.0%

Neolithic and Bronze Age mix ancestry

My Y line at this time as we have seen, may well been Early Neolithic Farmers in the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia.  My mtDNA line would have most likely have been women of the Yamnaya culture on the Eurasian Steppes, in Copper Age pastoralist tribes.

Global 10 Test

The recent Global 10 test, run by my friend Helgenes50 of the Anthrogenica board, resulted in:

  • 55% Baalberge_MN (European Middle Neolithic)
  • 38% Yamna_Samara (Eurasian Steppe Pastoralist)
  • 7% Loschbour:Loschbour (Late Eurasian hunter-gatherer)

That is 55% European Neolithic Farmer, 38% Yamnaya Steppe Pastoralist, and 7% European hunter-gatherer.

Alternatively, the FT-DNA test, although many in the population genetics community feel that it is unreliable:

FT-DNA My Ancient Origins

  • 9% Metal Age Invader
  • 47% Farmer
  • 44% Hunter-Gatherer
  • 0% Non European

GEDMatch Ancient Calculators

My MDLP K16 Modern Admixture
  • 31% Neolithic (modeled on genomes of first neolithic farmers of Anatolia)
  • 25% Northeast European (ancestry in North-Eastern Europe based on older type of ancestry (WHG, west European Hunter-Gatherer)
  • 22% Steppe (sourced from ancient genome of European Bronze Age pastoralists)
  • 22% Caucasian (derived from genomes of mesolithic Caucasian Hunter-gatherers)

My Eurasia K9 ASI Oracle:

  • 39% Western Hunter-Gatherer
  • 27% Early Neolithic Farmer
  • 15% Eastern Hunter-Gatherer
  • 12% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer
  • 7% SW Asian
  • 1% Siberian East Asian

My MDLP Modern K11 Oracle:

Admix Results (sorted):


# Population Percent
1 Neolithic 37.33
2 WHG 33.26
3 EHG 23.19
4 Iran-Mesolithic 3.25
5 Basal 2.66

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 British_Celtic @ 6.948432
2 Bell_Beaker_Germany @ 8.143357
3 Alberstedt_LN @ 8.426399
4 British_IronAge @ 9.027687
5 Halberstadt_LBA @ 10.273615
6 Bell_Beaker_Czech @ 12.190828
7 Hungary_BA @ 12.297826
8 Nordic_MN_B @ 12.959966
9 British_AngloSaxon @ 12.993559
10 Nordic_BA @ 13.170285

Using 4 populations approximation:
1 Bell_Beaker_Germany + Bell_Beaker_Germany + Corded_Ware_Germany + Hungary_CA @ 1.085814
2 BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Corded_Ware_Estonia + Hungary_CA @ 1.089547
3 Alberstedt_LN + Bell_Beaker_Germany + Corded_Ware_Germany + Hungary_CA @ 1.117882
4 Bell_Beaker_Germany + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Srubnaya_LBA @ 1.149613
5 Bell_Beaker_Germany + British_IronAge + Hungary_CA + Karsdorf_LN @ 1.185312
6 Alberstedt_LN + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Sintashta_MBA @ 1.226794
7 Nordic_BattleAxe + Hungary_BA + Hungary_CA + Karsdorf_LN @ 1.234930
8 Nordic_BattleAxe + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Unetice_EBA @ 1.238376
9 Alberstedt_LN + Hungary_BA + Hungary_CA + Yamnaya_Samara_EBA @ 1.247371
10 Bell_Beaker_Germany + Hungary_CA + Nordic_LN + Srubnaya_LBA @ 1.268124

My Gedrosia K15 Oracle:

  • 40% Western Hunter-Gatherer
  • 25% Early European Farmer
  • 21% Caucasus
  • 5% Burusho
  • 5% SW Asian
  • 3% Balochi
  • 1% Siberian

Ancient Eurasia K6 Oracle:

  • 40% West European Hunter-Gatherer
  • 39% Natufian
  • 21% Ancient North Eurasian
  • 1% East Asian

Finally, Generation 1.  In an Orcadian Cairn, 2016.  Thank you for taking an interest.

Some recent Documentary Genealogy Posts

My Family and Abraham Lincoln (Swanton Morley, Norfolk)

The Thackers of Norfolk

My transported great great great grandfather

Maxey - near Peterborough

Long Wittenham - the ancestral home of our Brooker line

On the trail of the Brookers of Oxfordshire

Our missing great grandfather

Two fathers and more online genealogy

Bunwell, Norfolk, ancestral parish

Breaking through - my Brooker Line

My 2xgreat grandmother Emily Smith (nee Barber), with her son Sid Smith in Norwich.  Emily was born 1859 at Hedenham, Norfolk.

What did my 3 x great grandfathers do for a living?

3 x great grandfather 1.  John Brooker.  Shepherd, and an agricultural labourer.  Born 1820 at Rotherfield Peppard, Oxfordshire, lived later in life in the surrounding villages of Harpsden and Shiplake. Married Mary Ann in 1845, they had ten children.  He died in 1912.

3 x great grandfather 2.  Henry Shawers.  Harrow Weaver.  Born about 1826, the son of a copper smith, I have still not found their origins. He lived in the East End of London.   He married Elizabeth at Bethnal Green, London in 1857, and they had at least two children, while they were living at Haggerston, London.

3 x great grandfather 3.  William _____.  Miller.  Born 1815 at the village of Saham Toney in Norfolk.  He was named as the father of my illegitimate born great great grandfather.  At the time, William was a journeyman miller, and he had been married to another woman less than a year.

3 x great grandfather 4.  William _____.  Shoemaker.  Born 1820 at East Dereham, Norfolk.  He was named as the father of my illegitimate born great great grandmother.  She recorded him as her father on her marriage registry entry.

3 x great grandfather 5.  Robert Smith.  Umbrella maker.  Born 1807 at Attleborough, Norfolk.  He lived as far as I can tell, all of his life in Attleborough.  He married Lydia there in 1827.  They had six children, until her death in 1844.  Robert then married Frances.

3 x great grandfather 6.  David Peach.  Shepherd and a drover.  Born 1807 at Maxey, Cambridgeshire.  Maybe as a drover, he met my 3xgreat grandmother, Sarah, from Norfolk.  He took her back to the Etton area.  They married at Holywell, Lincolnshire, in 1835.  They had one daughter, my ancestor.  However, shortly after, David was convicted at Lincoln Assizes of stealing two steers.  He was transported as a convict for life to Van Diemens Land (Tasmania).

3 x great grandfather 7.  Robert Barber.  Agricultural labourer.  Lived at St Michael, South Elmham, Suffolk.

3 x great grandfather 8.  James Ellis.  Agricultural labourer.  Born (1812) and lived at Hempnall, Norfolk.  Married Esther.  They had nine children.

3 x great grandfather 9.  William Curtis.  Agricultural labourer.  Born at Strumpshaw, Norfolk  in 1830.  Married Georgianna in 1852 at Hassingham.  They had nine children.  William died in 1926.

3 x great grandfather 10.  Robert Rose.  Agricultural labourer.  Born 1829 at Lingwood, Norfolk.  He married Sarah Ann at Limpenhoe in 1853.  They had eight children.  Robert died in 1908.

3 x great grandfather 11.  William Key.  Agricultural labourer.  Born 1804 surprisingly, in the City of Norwich, Norfolk.  I suspect that the family were not there for long.  He married Mary in 1823 at Freethorpe, Norfolk.  They had five children.  William died in 1869.

3 x great grandfather 12.  Richard Goffen.  Inn Keeper and Master Carpenter.  Born 1795 at Reedham, Norfolk, where he appears to have lived out his life.  Down by the river, he may have been one of the carpenters working on the wherry vessels.  When he married my ancestor Elizabeth at Reedham, Norfolk in 1843, he was already a widower and 26 years her senior!  However, Elizabeth gave him seven children.  Richard died a happy man in 1866.

3 x great grandfather 13.  James Tovell.  Agricultural labourer and farm bailiff.  Born 1815 at Geldeston, Norfolk.  He married Mary at Chedgrave, Norfolk in 1841.  They lived around the Loddon, Norfolk area for a while, before crossing the river Yare, and settling at Halvergate, Norfolk, by the marshes.  Mary gave him seven children, including two before marriage.  James died at Halvergate in 1900.

3 x great grandfather 14.  William Lawn.  Agricultural labourer.  Born 1804 at Halvergate, Norfolk.  He married Elizabeth in 1831 at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk.  She gave him five children.  William passed away in 1885.

3 x great grandfather 15.  The missing one.  My only unrecorded 3 x great grandparent.  The unrecorded biological father of my illegitimate born ancestor at Rackheath, Norfolk.  The mother was Sarah Thacker, who was born at Salhouse, Norfolk, in 1823.

3 x great grandfather 16.  Reuben Daynes.  Agricultural labourer.  Born 1822 at Brandon Parva, Norfolk.  He moved to Besthorpe, Norfolk, and married Sarah in 1848.  She gave him six children.  Reuben died in 1908.

Was our Y ancestor a Druze?

From an image published by Ashley Van Haeften and copied here under Creative Commons Licence Attribution 2.0 Generic.

Within hours of publishing my most recent hypothesis: Was our ancestor a Baloch Lascar, I receive news of an incredible rare event.  Someone else on the FTDNA Big Y tested to Y Haplogroup L L-SK1414 (L1b2c).  The sample belonged to a Druze genetics project, and was taken from a man from the Druze town of Zaroun (Matn District) in Lebanon.  The project administrator told me "his ancestors -at least for the past 1000 years- should have been either residents in Mount Lebanon or migrated as many other Druze families from the Idlib region in NW Syria (Jabal el Summaq Mountain)".

The Druze

The Druze are a Levant community, dispersed primarily through Syria, Lebanon, and Israel.  They consider themselves an Arabic culture, but they follow their own faith system, which according to Wikipedia: "The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn-'Ali, al-Hakim, Plato, Aristotle, Socrates and Akhenaten.".


What makes the Druze particularly interesting to population geneticists, is that they stopped accepting converts one thousand years ago.  They marry within their community only.  Therefore they potentially represent a snapshot of the medieval Levant population, without more recent admixture.  A recent genetic study of the Druze confirms this history:

"The researchers also found that there is no evidence of new genes entering the Druze gene pool over the last 1,000 years. In other words, no additional groups from the outside joined this community. In addition, the researchers found evidence of genetic differences between Druze populations from different regions: Lebanon, the Golan Hights, the Upper Galilee and the Carmel Mountain. This strengthens the evidence that marriages take place only within each clan.

When they went further back in time, the researchers discovered another interesting finding. It came to light that, 500 years prior to the beginning of the Druze religion, around the 6th century AD and at the time of the birth of Islam, a genetic group began to take shape that formed the basis of the Druze community’s ancestors.

According to this study, the Druze genome is largely similar to the genome of other Arab populations in the Middle East. They also found a few genetic elements in the Druze genome that originated from Europe, Central and South Asia (the Iran region) and Africa.".

Source.

Studies have found that although a variety of both Y and mt haplogroups can be found in the Druze community, they appear to have been isolated for that time period.  So a haplotype found within the Druze, would have been in the region of North-West Syria and Lebanon, during the 11th Century AD.

Druze Clerics During the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate era (late 19th Century AD). See page for author [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

How does this change my perspective on my Y origins into Europe?

L-SK1414 now looks more dispersed across Western Asia, from the Levant, to Pakistan.  That might mean that my medieval Y migrant from Asia to England didn't take a Lascar route from the Persian Gulf / Arabian Sea after all.  It could be that they traveled from the Levant along the Mediterranean, or even across Europe?  They may not have a Balochi connection - they could have been of many Asian ethnicities.  It's a good example of how easy it is to develop a hypothesis based on too little evidence.

As for the origins of L-SK1414, I'm now looking a little more south, and a little more central.  Favourite suggestion now is Tigris and Euphrates Valleys, and the Zagros Mountains, in Iraq and Iran.  L-SK1414 could have dispersed westwards to the Levant, and eastwards to Makran, SW Pakistan.

Here is the distribution of recorded Y haplotype L-SK1414 so far in Western Asia:

Note the centralised nature of the Iran / Iraq "Cradle of Civilisation" to L-SK1414.  Could our Y ancestors have passed through Ancient Mesopotamia?  Now there's an interesting thought!

Y Haplotype L1b2c

By Hellerick (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons.  Modified by Paul Brooker.

I've created this distribution map of known Y haplogroup L, L1b2c or L-SK1414. This is my Y-DNA haplotype.  Not a lot of dots there are there?  This is how rare that this clade is.  L1a and L1b most likely (in my opinion) originated during the last Ice Age circa 18,000 years ago, south of the Caucasus, and west of the Caspian Sea in Western Asia.  In other words, in the area of present day Armenia, Azerbaijan, and North-west Iran.  Again, I emphasise, that is just my opinion, looking at present-time evidence.

Y haplogroup L itself may have diverged between L1 and L2, not so much earlier, or so far away from this region.  Again, just my present opinion.

My sub clade of L1b, is so rare, that it is impossible to say.  As can be seen from the map.  However, this is my blog, so I'm going to push out on this one.  My very best guess would be further to the East than it's parent.  I suspect South East of the Caspian Sea, in what is now Eastern Iran.  I could well be wrong.  We have so few tests from nearby Afghanistan for example.  So far, the SNP SK1414 has only been reported twice.  1) in Makran, SW Pakistan, in a Balochi speaking man.  Balochi is an Iranian language, closely related to North-West Iranian languages.  Researchers suggest that the Balochi people of Makran, largely migrated from south west of the Caspian.

The only other guy in the world so far confirmed is little old me, an Englishman.  I trace my surname (direct paternal) line back to the Thames Valley of Oxfordshire / Berkshire 270 years ago.  If my biological line follows that.  A number of STR testers of English descent appear connected to me by STR analysis.  They all descend from Thomas Chandler, who lived around the same time as my earliest recorded ancestor - only 32 miles away at Basingstoke.

From all of the evidence, I conclude that my Y ancestral line moved, probably in one generation, from Western Asia, perhaps from he edge of Persia, to Southern England conservatively between 2,000 and 400 years ago.  Although I would speculate between 1,600 and 600 years ago - during the Medieval or close by.