Above image. My Global 10 Genetic Map coordinates: PC1,PC2,PC3,PC4,PC5,PC6,PC7,PC8,PC9,PC10 ,0.019,0.0272,0.0002,-0.0275,-0.0055,0.0242,0.0241,-0.0033,-0.0029,0.0015. The cross marks my position on a genetic map by David Wesolowski, of the Eurogenes Blog.
The above map shows genetic distances between different human populations around the planet. Look how tightly the Europeans cluster. Razib Kahn recently blogged on just this subject. The fact of the matter is that the greatest diversity exists between populations outside of Europe, particularly within Africa, and between African and non-African populations. However, we obsess over tiny differences within European populations, when in truth, most Western Eurasians are very closely related. We share ancient ancestry from slightly varied mixes of only three base ancestral groups, with the last layer arriving only 4,300 years ago. This obsession in the Market drives DNA to the consumer businesses to largely ignore non-European diversity, and to focus too closely on differences that blur into each other.
The above image is from CARTA lecture. 2016. Johannes Krause of the Max Planck Institute. It shows the currently three known founder populations of Europeans and their average percentages.
However, at the same time the new Living DNA service seeks to zoom in closer on British populations, attempting to detect ancestry percentages from such tiny zones as "East Anglia". They appear to be having a level of success with it as well, although that blurriness, that overlap and closeness of populations in Europe gives problems. Germans are given false percentages of British, Some Scottish appear as Northern Irish, and the Irish dilute into false British areas. However, I've seen enough results now to suggest that it is far from genetic astrology. They get it correct to a certain level, particularly for us with English ancestry. Ancestry DNA customers expect perfection. I don't think that we will ever get that from such closely related populations at this resolution, but it does provide a new genealogical tool that can point us into some revealing directions.
Above image. My Living DNA Map. Based on my recorded genealogy, I estimate 77% to 85% East Anglian ancestry over the past 250 years or so. Living DNA at Standard Mode gave me 39%. I'm impressed by that. That a DNA test can recognise even at a 50% success, my recent ancestry in such a tiny zone of the planet. I have doubts though that this sort of test will ever be free of errors, and mistakes. The safest DNA test for ancestry is still one that is based on more distinct populations, and outside of Africa, that can be as wide as "European". 23andMe for example in their "Standard Mode" (75% confidence), assign me 97.3% European, and 0.3% Unassigned. That is a pretty safe result.
Autosomal DNA tests for ancestry, particularly for West Eurasian (European and Western Asia) descendants, are not reliable at high resolution. If you want to get really local, then sure - do it. However, only use the results as an indication, not as a truth. Populations in Western Eurasia are closely related, and share recent common descent. There has been a high degree of mobility and admixture ever since. Some modern populations tested do not have a high level of deep rooted local ancestry in that region. They overlap with each other. Keep researching and meander through different perspectives of what your older pre-recorded ancestry could have been.
Above image by Anthrogenica board member Tolan. Based on 23andMe AC results. My results skew away from British, and towards North French. He generated this map, plotting myself (marked as Norfolk in red), and my Normand Ancestral DNA twin Helge in yellow. My results fall in the overlap with French. Helge is Normand but in AC appears more British than myself. I am East Anglian yet in this test appear more French than he does.
I have taken several DNA tests for ancestry, including those provided by the FT-DNA, 23andMe, and Living DNA companies. Unusual for a tester, I am actually of a single population, very local, well documented ancestry here in East Anglia, South-East England. I'm not someone in the Americas or Australia, that might have very little clue what parts of the world that their ancestors lived in, previous to immigration. I know my roots, I'm lucky. I live them. You might ask, why did I feel the need to test DNA for ancestry? The answer is, curiosity, to test the documented evidence, fill the gaps, look for surprises, and in particular, to understand the longer term, to reach further back into my ancestry.
I have though, become a bit of a skeptic, even a critic, of autosomal DNA (auDNA) tests for ancestry. They are the tests presented by the businesses in results called something like Ancestry, Family Ancestry, Origins, Family, Composition, etc. Instead of testing the haplogroups on either the direct paternal (Y-DNA), or direct maternal (mtDNA), these tests scan the autosomal and X chromosomes. That's good, because that is where all of the real business is, what makes you an individual. However, it is subject to a phenomena that we call genetic recombination (the X chromosome is a little more complicated). This means that every generation circa 50% of both parents DNA is randomly inherited from each parent. I said randomly. Each generation, that randomness chops up the inherited segments smaller, and moves them around. After about seven or eight generations, the chances of inheriting any DNA from any particular ancestral line quickly diminishes. It becomes washed out by genetic recombination.
Therefore, not only are the autosomes subject to a randomness, and genetic recombination - they are only useful for assessing family admixture only over the past three hundred years or so. There is arguably, DNA that has been shared between populations much further back, that we call background population admixture. It survived, because it entered many lines, for many families, following for example, a major ancient migration event. If this phenomena is accepted - it can only cause more problems and confusion, because it can fool results into suggesting more recent family admixture - e.g. that a great grandparent in an American family must have been Scandinavian, when in fact many Scandinavians may have settled another part of Europe, and admixed with that ancestral population, more than one thousand years ago.
DNA businesses compare segments of auDNA, against those in a number of modern day reference populations or data sets from around the world. They look for what segments are similar to these World populations, and then try to project, what percentages of your DNA is shared or similar to these other populations. Therefore:
Your results will depend on the quality and choice of geographic boundary, allocated to any reference population data set. A number of distinct populations of different ancestry and ethnicity may exist with in them, and cross the boundaries into other data sets. How well are the samples chosen? Do they include urban people (that tend to have more admixture and mobility than many rural people). Do they include descendants of migrants that merely claim a certain ancestry previous to migration?What was the criteria for sample selection?
Your results might be confused by background population admixture.
You are testing against modern day populations, not those of your ancestors 300 - 500 years ago. People may well have moved around since then. In some parts of the World, they certainly have!
It is far truer to say that your auDNA test results reflect shared DNA with modern population data sets, rather than to claim descent from them. For example, 10% Finnish simply means that you appear to share similar DNA with a number of people that were hopefully sampled in Finland (and hopefully not just claim Finnish ancestry) - not that 10% of your ancestors came from Finland. That is, for the above reasons, presumptuous. It might indeed suggest some Finnish ancestry, but this is where many people go wrong, it does not prove ancestry from anywhere.
This is my main quibble. So many testers take their autosomal (for Family/Ancestry) DNA test results to be infallible truths. They are NOT. White papers do not make a test and analysis system perfect and proven as accurate. Regarding something as Science does not make it unquestionable - quite the opposite. The fact of the matter is, if you test with different companies, different siblings, add phasing, you receive different ancestry results. Therefore which result is true and unquestionable?
A Tool for further investigation
So what use is DNA testing for ancestry? Actually, I would say, lots of use. If you take the results with a pinch of salt, test with different companies, then it can help point you in a direction. Never however take autosomal results as infallible. Critical is to test with companies with well thought out, high quality reference data sets. Also to test with companies that intend to progress and improve their analysis and your results.
For DNA relative matching, then sure, the companies with the best matching system, the largest match (contactable customer) databases, and with custom in the regions of the world that you hope to match with. There is also, GEDmatch. Personally, I find it thrilling when I match through DNA, but in truth, I had more genealogical success back in the days when genealogists posted their surname interests in printed magazines and directories.
The results of each ancestry test should be taken as a clue. Look at the results of testers with more proven documented and known genealogies. Learn to recognise what might be population background, as opposed to recent admixture in a family. Investigate haplogroup DNA - it has a relative truth, although over a much longer time, and wider area. Just be aware that your haplogroup/s represent only one or two lines of descent - your ancestry over the past few thousand years may not be well represented by a haplogroup. Investigate everything. Enjoy the journey. Explore World History.
After a four month wait, my initial results have arrived today from Living DNA. The wait has, I feel been understandable for a launch company. The results are still limited to standard mode only.
Living DNA Standard mode
100% European Regional:
74% Great Britain & Ireland
10% Europe (South)
7% Europe (North and West)
10% Europe (unassigned).
39% East Anglia
8% South Central England
5% South East England
2.4% North Yorkshire
2% South England
1.6% Central England
1.5% North West England
1.3% South Yorkshire
3.5% unassigned Great Britain & Ireland
10% Tuscany (Europe South)
5% Scandinavia (Europe North and West)
2% Germanic (Europe North and West)
9.7% Europe unassigned.
My initial response? Enthralled and highly impressed. A little disappointed that the East Anglia percentage was not higher. I suggest 77% based on my documentary record. Living DNA gave it 39%. I still find that a very good result.
However... let's get this into perspective to 23andMe and FT-DNA tests. Documentary evidence suggests that I am 100% British over the past 300 years. 23andMe said 32%. FT-DNA said 36%. Living DNA gets it so much closer at 74%! That is a whole lot more accurate.
What about the remaining 26% on regional level, where do Living DNA say that comes from? All European. It suggests 9.7% unassigned European, 9.6% Tuscan (Southern European), 4.6% Scandinavian, and 2% "Germanic". The Tuscan is interesting, but I'm not convinced yet that it is not ancient and population based. The Scandinavian is also most likely ancient - in my opinion.
Two things please and impress me about my results on the sub regional level:
1) Based on documentary research, I estimate that 250 years ago, 77% of my ancestors were in East Anglia. Living DNA indeed, sees it as by far my largest sub regional percentage. At 39%, a little low, but very impressive. They correctly identified me as East Anglian.
My next main region, in my Family Tree, I have circa 12% ancestors from "South Central England". Living DNA saw this, and it is indeed, my second largest percentage at sub regional level. I get South Central England with 7.5% - incredible. The small "South England" would also tied to this line.
Then I get 5.4% South-East England. It could be over spill from the East Anglia ancestry, but I do have one 3xgreat grandfather Shawers In London, that I do not know the origins of. I wonder now?
Then it's "Lincolnshire" with 4.8%. Brilliant! I had a 3xgreat grandfather from the southern parts of Living DNA's Lincolnshire sub region. That fills my documentary record almost perfect. The small "Central England" percentage would also tie to this line.
Then follows a number of low percentages from all over Southern and Eastern England. They might tell a story, or might not. Surprisingly Cornwall and Devon show up in low percentages, as does Yorkshire. Did my Shawers line actually come from one of those regions? I have seen Shawers in Devon, Cornwall, Shores in Yorkshire, and Shawers in Lancashire.
2) What is excluded can also demonstrate the accuracy of such a test. No Welsh, Northumbrian, French, Normand, Irish, Scottish, or Iberian ancestry suggested. Not that I'd have any objection against descent from any of these, or anywhere - but that this test successfully sees that I am NOT descended from these close regions, is to my mind, a great success, and a vast improvement on any past autosomal DNA tests for ancestry by other businesses. The truth is, that the English are so like these other populations!
On mtDNA they get my haplogroup down to H6a1a.
They have not yet completed my Y-DNA analysis. I guess L in an English tester might have thrown them a bit.
No other DNA test has ever existed quite like this. My initial response is - an amazing test. The future of autosomal testing for Ancestry.
The Caucasus. By NASA/MODIS - Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=1939) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
I grew up in the age where archaeology was the main driver behind our understanding of the distant past. It still plays an important role in helping us to understand our human past before writing, and to sometimes correct our understanding of our past ever since the advent of writing.
During the past 24 months however, there has been a silent revolution. It has been read by what is inside of us, the story of human DNA, and a foray into exploring and mapping ancient human DNA. It is rewriting the prehistory of Western Eurasia.
First of all, we have to stop retaining ideas that somehow, Western Europeans are an isolate population. We are the result of admixture after admixture, across Eurasia. The DNA of humans from Ireland to Iran is strikingly similar. We are a combination of different admixtures from different populations that lived 1) North of the Caucasus, 2) South of the Caucasus, and 3) Europe. The Caucasus, as in the photo above, has been the great division between peoples, that allowed local Western Asian populations to divide, that then to admixed in both Western Asia, and in Europe.
This revelation is not yet widely known. Even many professional archaeologists remain unaware, or skeptical about this new tool. New migrations and admixture events are being discovered, into Europe, and across Eurasia that contradict previous consensus.
The Founder Populations
The latest evidence suggests that the earlier humans and their cultures of Ice Age Europe, did not survive all of the fluctuations in climate. A new genome arrived and established 14,000 to 7,000 years ago, as represented by the Villabruna Cluster of human remains. These last hunter-gatherers appear to have less Neanderthal DNA, and a closer relationship to Near East populations than did earlier Europeans. They may have migrated into Europe when much of the Aegean Sea dried towards the end of the Ice Age. These late hunter-gatherers may have contributed DNA to modern Western Eurasians both inside Europe, and in West Asia. When Early Neolithic Farmers arrived in NW Europe, it was probably the descendants of the Villabruna Type that they encountered. They may have admixed with them. A genetic legacy from these populations appears to be blue eyes.
South of the Caucasus
The Fertile Crescent spawned the Neolithic Revolution of Agriculture. A distinctive genetic "ghost" population that has been named the Basal Eurasians significantly contributed to their DNA, along with other hunter-gatherer populations within the area. Their descendants, the Early Neolithic Farmers, took agriculture, wheat, barley, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs - along with pottery production, and polished flint axe heads across the Levant, to North Africa, Anatolia, and then on to Europe. Along the way, they may have admixed with the hunter-gatherer populations that they displaced. Today, their surviving DNA signal in Europe, is strongest in Sardinia, followed by the remainder of Southern Europe.
North of the Caucasus
Arable agriculture made only a temporary appearance on the Pontic and Caspian Steppes, but was soon replaced by pastoralism and a very different way of life. The horse was well adapted to life on the Steppes, and humans there domesticated it. Mounted on horses, they could control larger flocks and herds of livestock. They also introduced wheeled carts, enabling them to easily mobilise to the best pastures depending on season and climate change. They also encountered and mastered the new copper then bronze working technologies. Steppe pastoralists could range long distances across the Steppe Corridor across Eurasia. They were also adapting by natural selection to a dairy based diet, with a rising percentage of lactose tolerance into adulthood. A significant contribution to their DNA came from a group of Siberian hunter-gatherers known to population geneticists as the Ancient North Eurasian. The copper age archaeological culture associated with this genetic group is the Yamna or Yamnaya.
Yamna Culture Tomb. By XVodolazx (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
What happened in Europe?
Villabruna types entered Europe around 15,000 years ago, perhaps from the Near East. They may have replaced earlier groups of European hunter-gatherers.
Early Neolithic Farmers from south of the Caucasus, then spread into Europe around 7,000 years ago, both across the Balkans into Central Europe, and also along the Mediterranean coast, bringing agriculture and pottery. They may have at times admixed with hunter-gatherers within Europe. However, their much better abilities at food production created a wave of displacement that must have been hard to resist. They could rear so many more children. By 5,000 years ago, their descendants dominated Europe.
Eurasian Steppe Pastoralists from north of the Caucasus, then spread into Eastern Europe around 4,100 years ago. Why wasn't there a resistance from the Early Neolithic Farmers living there? Latest research suggests that the Steppe Pastoralists had contracted a plague strain known as Yersinia pestis from Central Asia. The current favoured hypothesis is that they may have accidentally spread this disease to less resistant Neolithic Farmer populations in Europe. Some plots in Neolithic activity do indeed suggest a crisis at this time. Therefore, the Steppe Warriors could easily dominate the depleted and weakened social structures of the Neolithic Europeans. They brought with them, an Indo-European language, that appears to be the ancestor of most present day European languages.
In Europe, the fusion had a clear sex bias, with many Neolithic mitochondrial DNA haplogroups surviving, while Steppe Y haplogroups such as R1A still dominate today. The fusion also seemed to give rise to a new archaeological culture known as the Corded Ware.
We know that the Yamnaya expansion didn't stop at all in Eastern Europe, it continued into Western Europe. A fusion culture may be the Bell Beaker of the Early Bronze Age. Again, a sex bias, with some mtDNA haplogroups surviving, but a strong dominance of Steppe Y haplogroups including the many clades of R1b. Indeed, some of this domination is strongest on the Western edge of Eurasia, in places such as Iberia, Ireland, and Scotland, where later admixture events failed to reach - but the Steppe Pastoralists had dominated, particularly in male haplogroups.
How does this relate to this East Anglian?
According to the latest K7 Basal-rich test by David Wesolowski of the Eurogenes Blog, my ancestral breakdown of my autosomal DNA, around 14,000 years ago would be:
57% Villabruna-type (Europe and the Near East)
29% Basal-rich (Middle East)
14% Ancient North Eurasian (Siberia)
My Y haplogroup (L-SK1414) ancestor would have most likely been an ibex hunter in the area of present-day Iran and Iraq, possibly in the valleys of Mesopotamia, and or the Zagros Mountains of Iran.
My mtDNA ancestor would have been Eurasian - by 4,400 years ago, a woman of the Yamnaya, on the Pontic and Caspian Steppes, in a pastoralist tribe.
So, you get where this is taking me. Step back into prehistory, and what DNA is revealing to me is that my ancestors were NOT all in Britain, or even all in Europe. They were scattered across Siberia, the Steppes, the Caucasus, the Zagros, the Middle East, the Levant, and go further back, to Africa.
Alternatively, the equally recent Global 10 test, run by my friend Helgenes50 of the Anthrogenica board, resulted in:
These two tests may not actually conflict, as they are essentially tests referring to the Eurasian populations of two different time periods, with different admixtures. The K7 Basal-rich test refers to my proposed ancestral populations towards the end of the last Ice Age. The Global 10 test refers to more recent admixture leading up to the Bronze Age.
My Global 10 Genetic Map coordinates: PC1,PC2,PC3,PC4,PC5,PC6,PC7,PC8,PC9,PC10 ,0.019,0.0272,0.0002,-0.0275,-0.0055,0.0242,0.0241,-0.0033,-0.0029,0.0015
This is my position on the latest genetic map by David Wesolowski, of the Eurogenes Blog. One point of interest that has been picked up on the Anthrogenica Forums, is my consistent closeness in ancestral results, to a Normand member! Our Basal-rich K7 results were almost identical. On 23andMe Ancestry Composition (spec mode), I just get a bit more French & German, while he gets just a bit more British & Irish. We are close!
Another forum member argued though that it's my results that are skewed away from British, and towards North French. He generated this map, plotting myself (marked as Norfolk in red), and my Norman Ancestral DNA twin Helge in yellow:
I had to point out though, that I've rarely seen other SE English with a record of local ancestry, test - and that the red circles representing British & Irish include many people with some Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Western, or Northern ancestry. The map suggests a pull to Northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
As I commented towards the end of my last post, I initially expected a pull to Denmark, Northern Germany, and perhaps to the Netherlands. This is because so many of my 17th-20th century ancestors lived on what was the frontier of Anglo-Saxon and Danish immigration during the 4th to 11th centuries.
But instead, autosomal DNA tests for ancestry all seem to be suggesting more shared ancestry from a more southerly direction - Northern France and Belgium particularly. Although there has so far been a dearth of local testers from local families, the POBI survey seems to find this common among the English. We appear to be a halfway house between Old British, and the French, more than the ancestors of Anglo-Saxons and Danes. This contradicts the historical and archaeological records. POBI suggested that this was due to waves of unrecorded immigration from the South during late prehistory. Others have pointed the finger at Norman and French admixture in medieval Southern Britain. It could be both!
Here I map the ancestral events as recorded on my Gramps genealogical database. These events can be baptisms, marriages, census records, etc. The larger the dot, the more events for that particular parish. I have modified images of Southern England from OpenStreetMap.org Copyright attribution-sharealike 2.0 generic.
My Mother's Ancestral Events.
This includes the recorded events for my mother's 134 recorded direct ancestors and siblings. As you can see, her known ancestry over the past 330 years has been incredibly localised! All English. All East Anglian. Almost entirely in Norfolk - with one line drifting back to nearby Suffolk. An incredibly dense cluster in East Norfolk, around the River Yare in Broadland. Sure enough second cousin and third cousin marriages have been detected in her tree.
My Father's Ancestral Events
This includes the recorded events for my late father's 116 recorded direct ancestors and siblings. A little more travelled over the past 330 years, although I feel that the events record has a bias in research to show this - as indeed, I estimate his known Norfolk ancestry over the past 330 years to amount to at least 70% of his combined heritage. Nonetheless, some of his lines trace back temporarily to London, then back mainly to Oxfordshire and the Thames Valley. All South-East English again.
None of this makes my family any more special than any other family anywhere else in the World, with any type of recent heritage and admixture. Indeed, the English are a particularly admixed population. However, in testing commercial DNA tests for ancestry, I feel that we offer a good reference sample of SE English, and even East Anglian Norfolk.
I'm particularly interested in how these commercial DNA companies are failing to discriminate ancient or population admixture, from recent (350 years) family admixture. Some populations they are able to detect with some certainty and accuracy. However, others such as the English, not at all. They are unable - despite their claims otherwise, to break recent autosomal admixture on lines over the past ten generations, from earlier, sometimes much earlier population admixtures.
I'm looking forward to seeing if the new Living DNA test fares any better, with it's rich British data set.
Here I'm considering the third option to my enigma. My known ancestry is 100% English. However, autosomal DNA tests for Ancestry, by commercial companies, and by third party analysis, suggest that I have a mixture of European ancestries, including varying percentages of Southern European. I'm trying to best explain this phenomena. In previous posts, I considered 1) that my paper record is incomplete, or biologically incorrect. 2) that something ancient is picked up in analysis of present day English testers - that maybe reflect shared algorithms with ancient admixture, perhaps prehistoric, or Roman.
Now in this post, I consider the third option. That commercial DNA companies exaggerate their claims to be able to differentiate to any successful degree, between different regions of Europe in my ancestry. If this is indeed the case, it has significant repercussions for testers for example, in the USA, Canada, Australia, etc. If they have a poor paper trail, and poorly known ancestry, maybe it's all too easy for them to regard such DNA tests for ancestry, as indisputable and accurate truths.
Commercial DNA companies for Ancestry, are under pressure to supply to market demands. Their markets have been dominated particularly by USA customers. Some of them seasoned genealogists with good quality paper trails. Others, attracted by the easy option to know their ancestry before the, as 23andMe puts it, the Age of Migration before the past few centuries. Instead of spending a lifetime chasing documents, they can simply send a DNA sample to a company, and know their roots. People trust the science of DNA testing for ancestry. That is the demand that commercial companies can cater for.
But what if their abilities to accurately detect ancestry from Autosomal DNA is exaggerated?
Lack of agreement between analysis.
As one evidence. Test autosomal DNA with three different companies, and you will receive three different results. That is well known in genetic genealogy circles. Some apologists excuse it away by pointing to the different companies claims, to be focusing on different periods. 23andMe say that they zoom in on 500 years ago, by rejecting short chains. Is it really, really possible yet, to be able to zoom in on one particular period? I'm not convinced. Is it even possible to securely locate all ancestry from the past 500 years? I'd expect genetic recombination to wash away an awful lot of ancestral DNA long before that. The truth is that beyond our great great grandparent's generation, there is less and less chance of us carrying any surviving DNA from any one particular ancestor! Especially from the autosomal DNA passed down on your father's side. You might have a Balkan g.g.g.g grandfather, but chances are, there will be no evidence of their existence remaining in your autosomes. His DNA, and all that belonged to his Balkan ancestry, will be lucky to survive the following 250 years, never mind 500 years. My Y-DNA has strong evidence that I had an Asian ancestor on my paternal line, arrive in Southern England between 1,800 and 500 years ago. However, nothing remains in my autosomal DNA analysis that suggests Asia. Washed away.
Getting back to those three companies giving three different ancestries. My South European percentages have varied from 2% (with a hint at Iberia), to 19% (with a hint at Balkans), to FT-DNA's claim of 32%! Eurogenes K13 hints at Iberia in it's admixture programs on GEDmatch.
One more thing. Autosomal DNA tests for ancestry do not use ancient DNA references. Not yet anyway. They instead use present-day references, often from their own customer client bases, based on what ancestry they claim. This is not necessarily the DNA that existed in past populations. Populations and genes shuffle, genetic drift forms. I recently read a report that FT-DNA Y data for NW Europe heavily biases to Irish ancestry. Therefore, references from Americans of Irish and / or British descent, will bias to the West. The quality of a reference is critical.
Is it all Bunk?
Am I saying that autosomal DNA testing for Ancestry is all a waste of time? Actually no, not yet. The tests DO find me to be pretty much 100% European. That is a success. Some tests even find me with a degree of confidence, to be NW European. That is awesome. However, beyond such regional level, should we be trusting such tests to be providing concrete results, infallible "truths" with a high degree of accuracy? Shouldn't we be cautious, and regard such speculations as just that - speculations, to be assessed by other forms of evidence? Some of my ancestors might have lived in Southern Europe. Maybe Option 1 was correct - one of my Norfolk ancestors brought a Portuguese wife home from the Peninsular Wars. Perhaps. Maybe Option 2 was correct - the patterns that DNA companies pick up as Southern European, are ancient, related to Neolithic, Iron Age, or Roman admixture from the South, or sharing ancient ancestry with Southern Europeans. Maybe.
I'm not at all disenchanted with DNA testing for ancestry though. I've commissioned five so far this year, including three autosomal DNA tests. This leads me to my most recent commission. Perhaps this one will convince me more. It's a very new test. I'll post on that next.