An amateur genealogist and genetic genealogist. Born in an English family, in Norfolk, East Anglia, England, UK. I first became interested in traditional genealogy over twenty nine years ago. I still live in Norfolk, the home of the majority of my recorded ancestors.
- 23andMe kit. M551698
- AncestryDNA kit A741049
- FT-DNA Family Finder kit. T444495
- Living DNA kit (GEDmatch Genesis) JA5264324
The Paper Trail and Family History
I was born in Norfolk, to a local family. My current gedcom database includes records of 3,353 family members and ancestors for my children. I currently have records of 491 of my direct ancestors. All but three (a 3 x great grandfather and his named father of Switzerland, and a suspect French Walloon 9 x great grandfather) were in South-East England, predominantly in Norfolk, and appear to have been English. Most of my recorded ancestors over the past 400 years, appear to have been rural working class. They most likely descended predominantly from the medieval English peasantry.
Surnames of My Direct Ancestors
On my father's side, I currently have 264 of his direct ancestors recorded. The majority were in Norfolk, but some distant ancestors on record also lived in Oxfordshire, London, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Northants, Berkshire, and a great great grandparent from Switzerland.
Image: His great grandfather William Baxter, born at Gressenhall Workhouse, Norfolk, in 1846.
On my mother's side, I currently have 225 of her direct ancestors recorded. They were all in East Anglia - almost all in the County of Norfolk, with a few distant ancestors over the county border in Suffolk. Her ancestry over the past three centuries has a particularly dense cluster in Broadland, East Norfolk.
Her parent's wedding at Limpenhoe, Norfolk in 1932. Includes not only my maternal grandparents, but all four maternal side great grandparents, and one 2 x great grandmother.
This map demonstrates the ancestral events in my database, over the past 330 years. Blue are the ancestral events for my father's direct ancestors, red are the ancestral events for my mother's direct ancestors. the larger the dot, the more events in a parish:
A Photo Album of some of my ancestors
Image. My father's brother in Korea (Royal Norfolk Regiment) 1952.
Image: My great great grandfather, Samuel "Fiddler" Curtis. Born at Hassingham, Norfolk in 1852.
Image: My paternal grandmother as a little girl in Norwich, Norfolk, circa 1908, with her father, my great grandfather Fred Smith, a wheelwright, born at Attleborough, Norfolk, in 1866.
Image: My great great grandmother Sarah Thacker (nee Daynes), born at Besthorpe, Norfolk in 1845.
Image: My paternal great grandfather John Henry Brooker, born 1884 at Deptford, London, with his partner Mabel at Sheerness, Kent, in 1933.
Image: Four generations of a Norfolk family. The baby is my aunt, holding her, grandmother Ivy, behind her, my great grandfather Sam Tammas-Tovell, the elderly lady, my great great grandmother Eliza Tammas-Tovell (nee Lawn) born at Tunstall, Norfolk in 1849.
Image: My paternal grandmother as an infant, with her older brother circa 1905, Norwich, Norfolk.
Image: My late grandfather "Krewjer" Curtis, holding my young mother. On crutches behind them, my great grandmother Flo' Curtis (nee Key) born at Freethorpe, Norfolk in 1885.
Image: My great grandmother Emily Smith (nee Barber), born at Woodton, Norfolk in 1859), with my great uncle Sidney Smith at Norwich.
Online Family Trees
- My FT-DNA online Family Tree
- My Ancestry.co.uk online Family Tree. Tree name Norfolk. Member name Paul Brooker
- GEDmatch GEDCOM 6485714
Some recent Documentary Genealogy Posts
That is my documented family history and ancestry. I would dare postulate that most of my ancestors previous to this record, most likely descend from the peasants and freemen of medieval East Anglia, and also in the Thames Valley of Oxfordshire, and Berkshire.
So how does the above documented genealogy compare with the genetic genealogy? Let's see.
Here's my paper trail (2017-12-24) as verified biologically so far through 21 DNA matches (coloured in - darker shades multiply verified):
Biological verification here is achieved by DNA Matching systems such as Ancestry.co.uk, GEDmatch, and FT-DNA Family Finder, where a match that shares DNA segments, has a shared paper trail that corresponds to the suggested relationship, ie. known shared ancestry. There is always the possibility that the segments were inherited alternatively down other routes, therefore I seek to find multiple matches to increase verification. The darker the shade, the more verified. I also where possible, record the locations of segments on chromosomes for painting.
Next, the auDNA (Autosomal DNA tests for ancestry), generally agree that I'm 100% European, and at least mainly North-west European. I can't argue with that. At that level auDNA tests work reasonably. Let's look at my personal auDNA tests for ancestry, see what they report:
Living DNA (updated July 2017)
Below are my Living DNA regional ancestry, based on Standard Mode.
Below are my Standard Mode results broken down into sub regions.
Living DNA has now two new modes of confidence called complete and cautious modes. Below are my Cautious Mode results for sub-regional:
FT-DNA Family Finder My Origins (Updated April 2017)
51% British Isles
46% West and Central Europe
- Southeast Europe
- Western Middle East
23andMe V4 chip, Ancestry Composition speculative mode (before any phasing):
100% European: 94% NW European. 3% Southern European. 3% Broadly European.
Broken down to:
32% British & Irish
27% French & German
23andMe V4 chip, Ancestry Composition speculative mode phased with one parent (mother) and updated July 2017:
auDNA Tests for Ancestry - a conclusion
The tests prove very good at identifying that I am pretty much 100% European, and usually see me as mainly North-West European. Ironically, as my Y-DNA below demonstrates, I do have some distant Asian ancestry on that particular line. The only test that might some how pick this up is the latest FT-DNA My Origins (2:0), but it is probably coincidental.
The tests in general, are not so good at identifying me as English, or even as British. In the cases of the FT-DNA, and 23andMe tests, they have not made any attempt to create reference data sets for English populations, in order to distinguish their medieval (and earlier) admixture between older British, and Continental populations. Instead, they tend to bundle English with Irish, Welsh, and Scottish. As a result, English testers receive confusing results with lower than expected levels of British / Irish, and percentages of French, German, Scandinavian, and Southern European that they are wrongly assured are the results of recent family admixture from those parts of Europe. Only Living DNA and Ancestry.com have so far made an effort to untangle this issue.
I was also impressed by the Ancestry.com / Ancestry.co.uk Genetic Communities feature, that correctly assigns me to the "East Anglia & Essex" genetic community, with "very likely". This analysis looks at IBD (Identical by Descent) clusters in their customer's databases, rather than present day reference population panels, then link these clusters to actual historical populations by examining the family trees of some of the customers within the cluster. In comparison, the 23andMe offering of Your Ancestry Timeline is nonsense and totally inaccurate. Ancestry.com has since integrated Genetic Communities into their Ethnicity Estimates as sub regions. I have two: "Southern England" and "East Anglia & Essex".
I accept that my results are consistently atypical for a British tester, even perhaps an extreme for an English tester. They are more Continental than the average. Sometimes French. Sometimes Germanic, Sometimes Scandinavian. I cannot account for this with my documented and recorded family history, which is localised, rural, totally South-East English, and strongly East Anglian. I receive lower than average (for a British person of British recorded ancestry) British ancestry from all three DNA test businesses. The only answer that I can see, is that my ancestry is so strongly rural and localised in East Anglia, that I have higher than average admixture from the 5th to 10th Century AD immigration events - the Anglo-Saxon, and perhaps Anglo-Danish, and Anglo-Norman/Medieval French, Elizabethan Stranger, etc. It isn't really a surprise - particularly when you look at the above map of my mother's recorded ancestry.
This does though raise the question, how much are these geo-ethnical auDNA tests affected by background population admixture?
I want to discuss and look at third party analysis of these results further down in this post, but first, I want to report my DNA Haplogroups, as I feel that they are more precise:
Haplogroups act as genetic markers that follow strict rules of inheritance, passing down only one direct line of ancestry. They can be traced back into prehistory, and have a high reliability.
My Y-DNA Haplogroup
This is the haplogroup that you inherit on your direct paternal line, from your father, from his father, and back in time. I have tested my Y-DNA at 23andMe, then FT-DNA Y111, Big Y, and have had further analysis of my raw data at YFull, and FullGenome Corp. In other words, it has had a lot of investigation! First, my surname, which until it hits an NPE, should line up with my Y-DNA.
Brooker Surname Study
Above map modified from "© OpenStreetMap contributors". The red dots represent baptisms of BROOKER (including derivations such as Broker, Brocker, etc) between 1550 and 1600. The larger the red dots, the more baptisms in that parish.
The area focuses on South-East England. There was also a secondary cluster in Warwickshire, and stray families in Manchester, Yorkshire, Devon, and Norfolk. However, I have not catered for all of those on the above map. See the below larger scale map for Brooker baptism counts in those areas by county.
The Blue dots and notes mark ancestral birthplaces and dates of my recorded surname ancestors in Berkshire, Oxfordshire, and Deptford, London. My line traces back reasonably securely to a John Brooker born at Long Wittenham, Berkshire, circa 1722.
The Purple dot and text represents Thomas Chandler of Basingstoke, Hampshire. Living there circa 1740's, he appears to have shared my Y-DNA markers L-SK1414 judging by some of his Chandler surname descendants that have tested. At some point before 1722, we must have shared Y line (paternal) ancestors.
From this map I can conclude that during the late 16th Century, the BROOKER surname was most common in Sussex, Kent, Surrey, and Hampshire. There was a secondary cluster in Warwickshire.
This interesting surname derives from two possible origins. Firstly it may be of English topographical origin from the Old English word "broc", a brook, stream, plus the agent suffix "-er", used to describe a dweller at, hence "dweller at the brook". There is also a place called Brook in Kent and Wiltshire, from the same Old English word "broc" as above. Also the name may be an occupational name used to denote a broker, originating from the Anglo-French word "brocour", one who sells an agent in business transactions. The earliest recordings of the surname appear in the 13th Century (see below). John le Brouker was recorded in the 1327, Subsidy Rolls of Sussex. William le Brocker was listed in the 1326, Feet of fines Rolls. The Close Rolls in 1332, record a Elena Brocker. Kirby's Quest for Somerset recorded an Adam Brocker in 1328. Geoffrey Broker, aged 17, an immigrant to the New World, sailed aboard the "Merchant's Hope", bound for Virginia in July 1635. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Brokere, which was dated 1296, Subsidy Rolls of Sussex, during the reign of King Edward 1, "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
Y Haplogroup L (M20)
This is regarded as rare in Europe, and generally thought of a minority haplogroup spread across Western, Central, and Southern Asia. Going further downstream, I currently reach:
Y Haplotype L1b2c (L-SK1414)
This is regarded as a very rare sub clade, of a rare haplogroup! The FT-DNA Y Haplogroup L Project, currently contains only five SNP confirmed L-SK1414, and thirteen STR predicted L-SK1414. I know of one other SNP confirmed sample, and a few more STR predicted. The confirmed (including myself) are from: Southern England (English), Lebanon (Druze), Azeribaijan, USA (German) and Makran, SW Pakistan (Baluchi). The STR predicted are from Southern England, France, Russia, Kuwait, UAE, Eastern Iran, and Saudi Arabia.
I currently regard the origin of Y hg L1b2c as most likely to be in the region of Iran and Iraq. I believe that I most likely had a single Y ancestor, that travelled from Asia to Southern England sometime between 2,000 years ago, and 500 years ago. A "medieval" Asian traveller". No autosomal DNA tests have so far yielded any evidence of any Asian ancestry above that expected for an English person. Therefore, any auDNA evidence has likely been washed out by genetic recombination.
My earliest documented surname ancestor on record is my 6xgreat grandfather, John Brooker of Long Wittenham, Berkshire, born circa AD 1723. Some of the STR predicted L-SK1414 descend from a Thomas Chandler, that lived about the same time (early-mid C18 AD) at Basingstoke, which is only 32 miles from Long Wittenham. Most likely, John Brooker and Thomas Chandler shared a common Y ancestor.
Red are L-SK1414.
FT-DNA currently see my known haplotype as L-FGC51036 (downstream of SK1414). YFull currently list my haplotype as L-FGC51074 (SK1414).
PostNote. The Chandler connection.
- The top three are all descended on Y lines from a Thomas Chandler (1728-1782) of Basingstoke, Hants.
- 318339 I believe is an English Chandler, but without a paper trail proven back to the same Thomas Chandler
- The last, 491864 is not a Chandler. It is myself, but I follow my surname line back to a John Brooker (1722-?) of Long Wittenham, Berks.
Long Wittenham, Berks, is about 32 miles away from Basingstoke, Hants.
That 318399 (a Chandler but no trail to Thomas Chandler) has a few anomalies in his STRs, could that be evidence that the Y could have been in England some time, and have entered more than one line of Chandler?
I'm curious to try to better understand when this Y could have entered Southern England. I know that I'm perhaps trying to scrape too much from too few results. However, recently, on AncestryDNA, I have found two autosomal DNA cousin matches: Both have family trees, but no obvious connections to mine. However, they match also to each other, and BOTH have a William Chandler (m.1836 at Oxford, Oxon) in their direct trees. I've started building a tree myself for this William Chandler, who I have believe was b. South Hinksey, Berks in 1803. His family were very close, in nearby parishes to my Brooker ancestors at that time, between Oxford and Abingdon.
So far, I've not seen any illegitimacies etc.
I'm curious if the Y was first Chandler, then jumped into my Brooker surname line through an NPE. Alternatively, it jumped from Brooker to Chandler. Or quite possibly, I'm looking too hard at a very poorly sampled population, and there are many undiscovered L-SK1414 in Southern England, in more families. It could predate the common adoption of medieval surnames.
My mt-DNA Haplogroup
This is the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that you inherit on your direct maternal line, from your mother, from her mother, and back in time. I have tested my mtDNA at 23andMe, then FT-DNA mtFull Sequence. My 23andMe raw data was also correctly predicted by the James Lick mthap analyser website and by WeGene. In other words, it has also had a lot of correlation and investigation!
This is the most common mtDNA haplogroup in Europe, but it is also common in Asia, where it is believed to have originated. Possibly originating in Arabia, before moving up to Central Asia. Further downstream?
MT Haplogroup Branch H6a1a8
H6a1, based on studies of ancient DNA to date, most likely originated on the Pontic and Caspian Steppes of Asia. It has been found in the ancient DNA of human remains, from the Copper Age Steppe pastoralist Yamnaya Culture. H6a1 and H6a1a have both been found in the ancient DNA of human remains, from the Early Bronze Age East European Corded Ware Culture and Unetice Culture. More recently H6a1a has been recorded in the Netherlands ( 1883–1665 calBCE) in Bell Beaker Culture. No H6a1 or descendant branches have yet been recovered from earlier contexts in Europe.
Therefore it would appear that my mtDNA was carried into Europe from the Eurasian Steppes during the Early Bronze Age, as a part of the great Yamna expansion of that time. Most haplogroups associated with this expansion have been male Y haplogroups, which makes H6a1 of particular interest, because it was carried into Europe by Steppe women.
I haven't found enough current data on branch H6a1a8 to determine when or how it entered Lowland Britain, but it most likely formed during the Bronze or Iron Age, and so far, I've mainly seen North American and Austrasian H6a1a8 testers that feel that they most likely have British or Irish maternal ancestry.
I trace my direct maternal (mtDNA) line to my 6xgreat grandmother, Sarah Hardyman (nee Briting), who lived nearby at Bunwell, Norfolk, and was born circa 1725.
Okay, enough of my haplogroups, let's return to more auDNA evidence, and then look at Ancient Origins.
Other Third Party auDNA for ancestry analysis services
Eurogenes K36 Oracle
1 England_South-East 0,97559
2 Flemish 0,97248
3 Dutch_Limburg 0,96118
5 Hessen 0,95358
6 Baden-Württemberg 0,95271
7 Rheinland-Pfalz 0,95161
8 Dutch_Zuid_Holland 0,95062
9 England_North-West 0,94616
10 Dutch_Noord_Brabant 0,94114
11 FR_North-West 0,9408
12 Dutch_Gelderland 0,9407
13 Swiss_German 0,93803
14 Cumbria 0,93461
15 England_North-East 0,93109
16 FR_North-East 0,92895
17 Niedersachsen 0,92337
18 Bayern 0,9222
20 Dutch_Utrecht 0,9194
GedMatch.com. Eurogenes K13 (using my 23andMe data)
On Single Population Sharing, it rates my DNA against the closest references. In order of closest to not so close, the top five are:
On four populations admixing?
3 Norwegian + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 2.216714
4 Danish + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 2.225334
5 Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Swedish @ 2.230991
2 South_Dutch @ 4.559027
3 West_German @ 6.230592
4 Southwest_English @ 6.575822
5 Orcadian @ 7.239489
2 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + Swedish @ 1.919987
3 Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Swedish @ 1.928191
4 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Murcia + Swedish @ 1.955522
5 Norwegian + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 1.958800
Gedmatch.com. Eurogenes EU Test K15 (using my 23andMe data)
3 North_Dutch + Southwest_English + Spanish_Galicia + West_Scottish @ 1.282744
4 Southeast_English + Southwest_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + West_Norwegian @ 1.295819
5 North_Dutch + North_Dutch + Southwest_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 1.304939
Admix two population.
|1||90.8%||German (Germany)||+||9.2%||Scottish (Argyll_bute)||@||2.21|
|2||86.6%||German (Germany)||+||13.4%||Irish (Connacht)||@||2.23|
|3||91.7%||German (Germany)||+||8.3%||Orcadian (Orkney_Islands)||@||2.24|
|4||87.7%||German (Germany)||+||12.3%||English (Kent)||@||2.25|
|5||89.2%||German (Germany)||+||10.8%||Dutch (Netherlands)||@||2.28|
|6||89.6%||German (Germany)||+||10.4%||Shetlandic (Shetland_Islands)||@||2.28|
|7||93.9%||German (Germany)||+||6.1%||Norwegian (Norwegia)||@||2.29|
|8||94.6%||German (Germany)||+||5.4%||Icelandic (Iceland)||@||2.3|
|9||88.1%||German (Germany)||+||11.9%||French (France)||@||2.31|
|10||92.6%||German (Germany)||+||7.4%||English (England)||@||2.34|
Eurogenes K36 Map Tool by Tolan
Eurogenes K15 PCA Plot
DNA.land (3rd party auDNA raw file analysis)
23andMe V4 raw file for myself on DNA.land:
100% West Eurasian.
77% North West European
19% South European (broken into 13% Balkan / 6.1% South/Central European
FT-DNA FF raw file for myself on DNA.land:
100% West Eurasian
75% North West European
Gene Plaza Ancestry
- 74% NW European
- 14.9% SW European
- 8.5% Ambiguous
- 99.96% French
- 0.04% Others
Ancient Origins (auDNA calculators)
23andMe V4 chip
Neanderthal ancestry 2.9% DNA (82nd percentile) 23andMe average European tester is 2.7%
Updated July 2017: New Experience reports that I have 328 Neanderthal variants, more than 98% of 23andMe customers.
WeGene analysis of above 23andMe raw data
3.325% Neanderthal proportion of more than 81.94% of the users WeGene (Chinese based DNA service).
Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherer ancestry
My Y line as we have seen, was most likely in the area of modern day Iran or Iraq, perhaps in the Euphrates and Tigris valleys, or perhaps in the Zagros Mountains, hunting animals such as the Ibex. My mt-DNA line was most likely in a hunter-gatherer band somewhere in Asia. Perhaps Central Asia. What about my other Ice Age ancestors?
David Wesolowski's K7 Basal-rich test
The Villabruna cluster represents the DNA found in 13 individuals in Europe from after 14,000 years ago. They were Late Ice Age hunter-gatherers. They appear to have links with the Near East. The current thought is that they replaced earlier groups of hunter-gatherers in Europe. The DNA of people in the Middle East and Europe pulled together at this time, and they may represent an expansion from the South-East. Much of the Aegean Sea would have been dry, with low sea levels (glaciation), so the migration may have been easy. It is believed that they had dark skin, and blue eyes. They were possibly, the last hunter-gatherers of Europe and the Middle East. They may have contributed to our DNA both through or either, later Asian or European admixtures.
David gives the English average as 56.7%. My result is 57.1%
The Basal Eurasians are a hypothetical "ghost" population derived from DNA studies. It is suggested that they splintered from other modern humans 45,000 years ago, presumably outside of Africa, somewhere around the Middle East. They significantly contributed DNA to the Early Neolithic Farmers of the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia, and consequently, on to all of us modern West Eurasians.
David gives the English average as 26.5%. My result is 28.8%
Ancient North Eurasian
Another Ice Age hunter-gatherer "Ghost" population, but this one has been associated with human remains and an Upper Palaeolithic culture (Mal'ta-Buret') at Lake Baikal, Siberia. We know that it significantly contributes to modern West Eurasians, through earlier admixture on the Eurasian Steppes. Copper Age pastoralists then carried it westwards into Europe with their later expansion.
David gives the English average as 16.6%. My result is 14.0%
Neolithic and Bronze Age mix ancestry
My Y line at this time as we have seen, may well been Early Neolithic Farmers in the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia. My mtDNA line would have most likely have been women of the Yamnaya culture on the Eurasian Steppes, in Copper Age pastoralist tribes.
By Dilawer Khan, and available on GenePlaza.
My K12 results and populations
ANCIENT FARMERS 58.9%
West European Farmers (4000-5000 years) 25.2% References include Neolithic genomes from Portugal, and Chalcolithic genomes from Spain. The similarity between these farmers and other Mediterranean farmers points to a rapid spread of agriculture in Europe around 7000 years ago.
East European Farmers (5000-8000 years) 22.9% References consist of genomes from Turkey, Greece, and other parts of SE Europe from the Neolithic period. These represent descendants of the first farmers to colonize Europe from the Near East.
Neolithic-Chalcolithic Iran-CHG (5000-12000 years) 6.7% Based on Neolithic and chalcolithic period samples recovered from Northwest Iran. The farmers from the Zagros mountain Iran region descended from one of multiple, genetically differentiated hunter-gatherer populations in southwestern Asia. They are estimated to have separated from Early Neolithic farmers in Anatolia some 46,000 to 77,000 years ago, and show affinities to modern-day Kurd, Iranian, Pakistani and Afghan populations. The Neolithic Iranian references used for this component, were recovered from the Kurdistan region of Iran, and appear to be around 9000 years old. The Chalcolithic Iranian references have been dated to around 5000 years old. The Caucasus Hunter Gatherers (CHG) appear to have genetically contributed to present day Europeans, W Asians, and S Asians.
Levant (4000-8000 years) 4.1% Based on neolithic and bronze-age period samples recovered from the Levant area in the Middle-East. The references for the bronze age Levant farmer (BA) samples were recovered from the Ain Ghazal, Jordan area and were dated to about 4300 years ago. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter- gatherers of Europe to drastically reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; farmers related to those from Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of he Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia.
STEPPE CULTURES 30.8%
Andronovo-Srubnaya (3000-4000 years) 14.3% The Andronovo culture, which are believed to have aided in the spread of Indo_European languages, is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished around 3000-4000 years ago in western Siberia and the west Asiatic steppe. This culture overlapped with the Srubna culture in the Volga-Ural region of Russia.
Yamnaya-Afanasievo-Poltavka (4000-5000 years) 10.1% Believed to be among the first Indo-European language speakers. The Yamnaya genetically appear to be a fusion between the Eastern European Hunter Gatherers that inhabited the western Siberian steppe, and a populations from the Caucasus region. Descendants of the Yamnaya would later change the genetic substructure of indigenous Neolithic Europeans via invasions of Europe from the Eurasian steppe.
Karasuk-E Scythian (2000-3000 years) 6.4% This cluster is based on ancient genomes from the Karasuk culture, supplemented with two Iron-Age Eastern Scythian samples. The Karasuk percentage should be interpreted as a diffusion of DNA from the Eastern Eurasian Steppe populations post Bronze Age, via Turkic expansions, as well as more subtle diffusions via NE Caucasus populations.
WESTERN EUROPEAN & SCANDINAVIAN HUNTER GATHERERS (4000-5000 years) 8.8%
These were the indiginous populations of Europe that substantially contributed to the genetics of modern Europeans. It is believed that these hunter gatherers arrived in Europe around 45000 years ago from the Near East.
EASTERN NON AFRICANS (modern) 1.5%
SOUTH EAST EURASIAN - 0%
Neolithic and Bronze Age Ancestry K11 Rarer Alleles
This is the K11 admixture calculator with rarer alleles created by Dilawer Kahn, now available for a small fee as a test on Geneplaza. I had previously commissioned Dilawer to run my 23andme DNA raw data through the calculator, but this is a nicer presentation. The test seeks to estimate ancient ancestry admixture using his rarer alleles principle.
"These were the indigenous populations of Europe that substantially contributed to the genetics of modern Europeans. It is believed that these hunter gatherers arrived in Europe around 45000 years ago from the Near East.".
My Western European Hunter-gatherer admix is 21.7%
"This population introduced farming to Europe during the Neolithic, and were very likely descended from Neolithic farmers from the Near East. Their genetic signature is best preserved in modern Sardinians and other southern Europeans.".
My Neolithic European admix is 21.7%
"These early farmers from Anatolia from about 8000 years ago were the ancestors of the Early European farmers that introduced farming to SE Europe, and replaced the hunter-gatherer cultures that lived there.".
My Neolithic Anatolian admix is 16.4%
"The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished around 3000-4000 years ago in western Siberia and the west Asiatic steppe. This culture overlapped with the Srubna culture in the Volga-Ural region of Russia.".
My Andronova-Srubnaya admix is 14.6%
"The Yamna culture (also known as the Pit Grave culture), was an early Bronze Age culture from the Pontic Eurasian steppe from around 5000 years ago. The Yamna culture is identified with the late Proto-Indo-Europeans, and is the strongest candidate for the homeland of the Proto-Indo-European language.
My Yamnaya-Poltavka admix is 12.6%
"Based on Neolithic and chalcolithic period samples recovered from Northwest Iran. The farmers from the Zagros mountain Iran region descended from one of multiple, genetically differentiated hunter-gatherer populations in southwestern Asia. They are estimated to have separated from Early Neolithic farmers in Anatolia some 46,000 to 77,000 years ago, and show affinities to modern-day Kurd, Iranian, Pakistani and Afghan populations. The Neolithic Iranian references used for this component, were recovered from the Kurdistan region of Iran, and appear to be around 9000 years old. The Chalcolithic Iranian references have been dated to around 5000 years old.".
My Neolithic-Chalcolithic Iran admix is 7.6%
Neolithic-Bronze Age Levant
"Based on neolithic and bronze-age period samples recovered from the Levant area in the Middle-East. The references for the bronze age Levant farmer (BA) samples were recovered from the Ain Ghazal, Jordan area and were dated to about 4300 years ago. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter- gatherers of Europe to drastically reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; farmers related to those from Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of he Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia.".
My Neolithic-Bronze Age Levant admix is 4.4%
"Eastern Non Africans(ENAs) are one of the earliest splits from humans that migrated out of Africa to the Near East around 100,000 years ago. It is believed that ENAs split from the population in the Near East around 50,000 years ago. Populations such as the Andamanese Onge and Papuans are modern descendants of ENAs. The ENA component here is based on Papuan references.".
My Eastern Non-African admix is 1%
Global 10 Test
The recent Global 10 test, run by my friend Helgenes50 of the Anthrogenica board, resulted in:
- 55% Baalberge_MN (European Middle Neolithic)
- 38% Yamna_Samara (Eurasian Steppe Pastoralist)
- 7% Loschbour:Loschbour (Late Eurasian hunter-gatherer)
That is 55% European Neolithic Farmer, 38% Yamnaya Steppe Pastoralist, and 7% European hunter-gatherer.
Alternatively, the FT-DNA test, although many in the population genetics community feel that it is unreliable:
FT-DNA My Ancient Origins
- 9% Metal Age Invader
- 47% Farmer
- 44% Hunter-Gatherer
- 0% Non European
GEDMatch Ancient Calculators
- 31% Neolithic (modeled on genomes of first neolithic farmers of Anatolia)
- 25% Northeast European (ancestry in North-Eastern Europe based on older type of ancestry (WHG, west European Hunter-Gatherer)
- 22% Steppe (sourced from ancient genome of European Bronze Age pastoralists)
- 22% Caucasian (derived from genomes of mesolithic Caucasian Hunter-gatherers)
My Eurasia K9 ASI Oracle:
- 39% Western Hunter-Gatherer
- 27% Early Neolithic Farmer
- 15% Eastern Hunter-Gatherer
- 12% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer
- 7% SW Asian
- 1% Siberian East Asian
My MDLP Modern K11 Oracle:
Admix Results (sorted):
Using 1 population approximation:
1 British_Celtic @ 6.948432
2 Bell_Beaker_Germany @ 8.143357
3 Alberstedt_LN @ 8.426399
4 British_IronAge @ 9.027687
5 Halberstadt_LBA @ 10.273615
6 Bell_Beaker_Czech @ 12.190828
7 Hungary_BA @ 12.297826
8 Nordic_MN_B @ 12.959966
9 British_AngloSaxon @ 12.993559
10 Nordic_BA @ 13.170285
1 Bell_Beaker_Germany + Bell_Beaker_Germany + Corded_Ware_Germany + Hungary_CA @ 1.085814
2 BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Corded_Ware_Estonia + Hungary_CA @ 1.089547
3 Alberstedt_LN + Bell_Beaker_Germany + Corded_Ware_Germany + Hungary_CA @ 1.117882
4 Bell_Beaker_Germany + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Srubnaya_LBA @ 1.149613
5 Bell_Beaker_Germany + British_IronAge + Hungary_CA + Karsdorf_LN @ 1.185312
6 Alberstedt_LN + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Sintashta_MBA @ 1.226794
7 Nordic_BattleAxe + Hungary_BA + Hungary_CA + Karsdorf_LN @ 1.234930
8 Nordic_BattleAxe + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Unetice_EBA @ 1.238376
9 Alberstedt_LN + Hungary_BA + Hungary_CA + Yamnaya_Samara_EBA @ 1.247371
10 Bell_Beaker_Germany + Hungary_CA + Nordic_LN + Srubnaya_LBA @ 1.268124
My Gedrosia K15 Oracle:
- 40% Western Hunter-Gatherer
- 25% Early European Farmer
- 21% Caucasus
- 5% Burusho
- 5% SW Asian
- 3% Balochi
- 1% Siberian
Ancient Eurasia K6 Oracle:
- 40% West European Hunter-Gatherer
- 39% Natufian
- 21% Ancient North Eurasian
- 1% East Asian
Finally, Generation 1. In an Orcadian Cairn, 2016. Thank you for taking an interest.