An amateur genealogist and genetic genealogist. Born in an English family, in Norfolk, East Anglia, England, UK. I first became interested in traditional genealogy over twenty eight years ago. I still live in Norfolk, the home of the majority of my recorded ancestors.
- 23andMe kit. M551698
- FT-DNA Family Finder kit. T444495
The Paper Trail and Family History
I was born in Norfolk, to a local family. My current gedcom database includes records of 1,882 family members and ancestors for my children. I currently have records of 274 of my direct ancestors. All were in South-East England, predominantly in Norfolk, and appear to have been English. Most of my recorded ancestors over the past 330 years, appear to have been rural working class. They most likely descended predominantly from the medieval English peasantry.
Here is a recent pedigree fan chart demonstrating recorded coverage of my direct ancestry over the past 11 generations:
Below, birth locations of my ancestors for past six generations:
On my father's side, I currently have 118 of his direct ancestors recorded. The majority were in Norfolk, but some distant ancestors on record also lived in Oxfordshire, London, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, and Berkshire. This map demonstrates the ancestral events in his database, over the past 330 years:
Locations of my father's ancestry include:
Attleborough, Norfolk; East Dereham, Norfolk; Ditchingham, Norfolk; Gressenhall, Norfolk; Norwich, Norfolk; Swanton Morley, Norfolk; Hempnall, Norfolk; Hockham, Norfolk; Tasburgh, Norfolk; Coston, Norfolk; Hardingham, Norfolk; Banham, Norfolk; New Buckenham, Norfolk; Saham Toney, Norfolk; Saxlingham-Nethergate, Norfolk; St Michaels, South Elmham, Suffolk; Wrentham, Suffolk; Etton, Cambridgeshire; Maxey, Cambridgeshire / Northamptonshire, Holywell, Lincolnshire; Bethnal Green, London; Lambeth, London; Shoreditch, London; Lewisham, London; Harpsden, Oxfordshire; Rotherfield Peppard, Oxfordshire; Whitchurch, Oxfordshire; Shiplake, Oxfordshire; Deddington, Oxfordshire; Ipsden, Oxfordshire; Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire; North Aston, Oxfordshire; Long Wittenham, Berkshire, Abingdon, Berkshire,
Surnames within my father's recorded direct ancestry, include:
Aimes, Barber, Barker, Baxter, Beckett, Bennett, Blaxhall, Bligh, Bradfield, Brooker, Brucker, Crutchfield, Dennis, Durran, Edney, Ellis, Freeman, Gardiner, Goodram, Gregory, Harris, Harrison, Hedges, Hewitt, Hill, Neale, Peach, Read, Riches, Rippon, Saunderson, Seymore, Shawers, Shilling, Smith, Snelling, Sniss, Waine, Wick.
My paternal grandmother as an infant, with her older brother circa 1905, Norwich, Norfolk.
On my mother's side, I currently have 138 of her direct ancestors recorded. They were all in East Anglia - almost all in the County of Norfolk, with a few distant ancestors over the county border in Suffolk. Her ancestry over the past three centuries has a particularly dense cluster in Broadland, East Norfolk. This map demonstrates the ancestral events in her database, over the past 330 years:
Locations of my mother's ancestry include:
Hassingham, Norfolk; Reedham, Norfolk; Acle, Norfolk; Freethorpe, Norfolk; South Burlingham, Norfolk; Wymondham, Norfolk; Tunstall, Norfolk; Halvergate, Norfolk; Lingwood, Norfolk; Cantley, Norfolk; Salhouse, Norfolk; Woodbastwick, Norfolk; Rackheath, Norfolk; Southwood, Norfolk; Postwick, Norfolk; Strumpshaw, Norfolk; Beighton, Norfolk; Moulton, Norfolk; Brundall, Norfolk; Chedgrave, Norfolk; Loddon, Norfolk; Limpenhoe, Norfolk; Langley, Norfolk; Brandon Parva, Norfolk; Repps with Bastwick, Norfolk; Bunwell, Norfolk; Alburgh, Norfolk; Buckenham Ferry, Norfolk; Repps-with-Bastwick, Norfolk; Rollesby, Norfolk, South Walsham, Norfolk; Southwood, Norfolk; Spooner Row, Norfolk; Garvestone, Norfolk; Sprowston & Beeston St Andrews, Norfolk; Cawston, Norfolk; Whitwell, Norfolk; Beccles, Suffolk; Wrentham, Suffolk.
Surnames within my mother's recorded direct ancestry include:
Annison, Barker, Briggs, Britiff, Briting, Brooks, Brown, Coleman, Cossey, Creess, Curtis, Dawes, Daynes, Dingle, Dove, Edwards, Gaul, Ginby, Goffen, Goffin, Gorll, Gunton, Gynby, Hagon, Hardiment, Harding, Hardyman, Harrington, Key, Larke, Lawn, Ling, Marsh, Maye, Merrison, Mingay, Moll, Mollett, Morrison, Nevel, Neville, Nicholes, Nicholls, Nichols, Norton, Osborne, Page, Porter, Quantrill, Ransby, Read, Rix, Rose, Rowland, Sales, Shepherd, Shilling, Smith, Springall, Symonds, Tammas, Tammas-Tovell, Thacker, Thurkettle, Tovel, Tovell, Waters, Wymer, Yallop
My maternal grandparent's wedding at Limpenhoe, Norfolk in 1932. Includes not only my maternal grandparents, but all four maternal side great grandparents, and one 2xgreat grandmother.
Total ancestors in generations 2 to 12 is 258.
Image. My father's brother in Korea (Royal Norfolk Regiment) 1952.
Image: My paternal grandmother as a little girl in Norwich, Norfolk, circa 1908, with her father, my great grandfather Fred Smith, a wheelwright, born at Attleborough, Norfolk, in 1866.
Image: My paternal great grandfather John Henry Brooker, born 1884 at Deptford, London, with his partner Mabel at Sheerness, Kent, in 1933.
Image: My great great grandfather William Baxter, born at Gressenhall Workhouse, Norfolk, in 1846.
Image: My great grandfather Fred Smith, born at Attleborough, Norfolk in 1866, with his young son Lenny.
That is my documented family history and ancestry. I would dare postulate that most of my ancestors previous to this record, most likely descend from the peasants and freemen of medieval East Anglia, and also in the Thames Valley of Oxfordshire, and Berkshire. What else can I add?
So how does the above documented genealogy compare with the genetic genealogy? Let's see.
First of all, the auDNA (Autosomal DNA tests for ancestry), generally agree that I'm 100% European, and at least mainly North-west European. I can't argue with that. At that level auDNA tests work reasonably. Let's look at my personal auDNA tests for ancestry, see what they report:
Living DNA Standard mode
23andMe V4 chip, Ancestry Composition speculative mode (before any phasing):
100% European: 94% NW European. 3% Southern European. 3% Broadly European.
Broken down to:
32% British & Irish
27% French & German
23andMe V4 chip, Ancestry Composition speculative mode phased with one parent (mother):
FT-DNA Family Finder My Origins 2:0
51% British Isles
46% West and Central Europe
- Southeast Europe
- Western Middle East
FT-DNA Family Finder My Origins 1:0 (Until April 2017)
I was disappointed with the My Origins 1:0 result. Very off the mark.
auDNA Tests for Ancestry - a conclusion
The tests prove very good at identifying that I am pretty much 100% European, and usually see me as mainly North-West European. Ironically, as my Y-DNA below demonstrates, I do have some distant Asian ancestry on that particular line. The only test that might some how pick this up is the latest FT-DNA My Origins (2:0), but it is probably coincidental.
The tests in general, are not so good at identifying me as English, or even as British. In the cases of the FT-DNA, Ancestry.com and 23andMe tests, they have not made any attempt to create reference data sets for English populations, in order to distinguish their medieval (and earlier) admixture between older British, and Continental populations. Instead, they tend to bundle English with Irish, Welsh, and Scottish. As a result, English testers receive confusing results with lower than expected levels of British / Irish, and percentages of French, German, Scandinavian, and Southern European that they are wrongly assured are the results of recent family admixture from those parts of Europe. Only Living DNA has made an effort to untangle this issue.
I accept that my results are consistently atypical for a British tester, even perhaps an extreme for an English tester. They are more Continental than the average. Sometimes French. Sometimes Germanic, Sometimes Scandinavian. I cannot account for this with my documented and recorded family history, which is localised, rural, totally South-East English, and strongly East Anglian. I receive lower than average (for a British person of British recorded ancestry) British ancestry from all three DNA test businesses. The only answer that I can see, is that my ancestry is so strongly rural and localised in East Anglia, that I have higher than average admixture from the 5th to 10th Century AD immigration events - the Anglo-Saxon, and perhaps Anglo-Danish, and Anglo-Norman. It isn't really a surprise - particularly when you look at the above map of my mother's recorded ancestry.
This does though raise the question, how much are these auDNA tests affected by background population admixture?
The second aspect to my results, is that they keep producing a Southern European influence. On 23andMe, this manifests itself as only a small percentage - but phasing reveals that I inherited it from both parents. I surveyed 18 English testers on 23andMe, and on speculative mode, no less than 16 received small percentages of Southern European. Therefore, it would in this case appear to be a case of population background. However, FT-DNA 1:0 threw a whopping 32% Southern European at me, but then retracted that in the new version. 23andMe hints at Iberian. DNA.land suggests North Italian and Balkan. Then Living DNA suggests 9.6% Tuscany! I cannot account for these sort of percentages within my known recorded genealogy. I'm currently open minded to having unknown Southern European ancestors within the past ten generations, or to it being some sort of English population background signal, perhaps related to unknown prehistoric admixture, Roman British admixture, Norman Medieval admixture, or a combination.
My Y-DNA Haplogroup
This is the haplogroup that you inherit on your direct paternal line, from your father, from his father, and back in time. I have tested my Y-DNA at 23andMe, then FT-DNA Y111, Big Y, and have had further analysis of my raw data at YFull, and FullGenome Corp. In other words, it has had a lot of investigation!
Y Haplogroup L (M20)
This is regarded as rare in Europe, and generally thought of a minority haplogroup spread across Western, Central, and Southern Asia. Going further downstream, I currently reach:
Y Haplotype L1b2c (L-SK1414)
This is regarded as a very rare sub clade, of a rare haplogroup! The FT-DNA Y Haplogroup L Project, currently contains only five SNP confirmed L-SK1414, and thirteen STR predicted L-SK1414. I know of one other SNP confirmed sample, and a few more STR predicted. The confirmed (including myself) are from: Southern England (English), Lebanon (Druze), Turkey, USA (German) and Makran, SW Pakistan (Baluchi). The STR predicted are from Southern England, France, Russia, Kuwait, UAE, Eastern Iran, and Saudi Arabia.
I currently regard the origin of Y hg L1b2c as most likely to be in the region of Iran and Iraq. I believe that I most likely had a single Y ancestor, that travelled from Asia to Southern England sometime between 2,000 years ago, and 500 years ago. A "medieval" Asian traveller". No autosomal DNA tests have so far yielded any evidence of any Asian ancestry above that expected for an English person. Therefore, any auDNA evidence has likely been washed out by genetic recombination.
My earliest documented surname ancestor on record is my 6xgreat grandfather, John Brooker of Long Wittenham, Berkshire, born circa 1725. Some of the STR predicted L-SK1414 descend from a Thomas Chandler, that lived about the same time (early-mid C18 AD) at Basingstoke, which is only 32 miles from Long Wittenham. Most likely, John Brooker and Thomas Chandler shared a common Y ancestor.
Red are L-SK1414.
FT-DNA currently see my known haplotype as L-FGC51036 (downstream of SK1414). YFull currently list my haplotype as L-FGC51074 (SK1414).
My mt-DNA Haplogroup
This is the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that you inherit on your direct maternal line, from your mother, from her mother, and back in time. I have tested my mtDNA at 23andMe, then FT-DNA mtFull Sequence. My 23andMe raw data was also correctly predicted by the James Lick mthap analyser website and by WeGene. In other words, it has also had a lot of correlation and investigation!
This is the most common mtDNA haplogroup in Europe, but it is also common in Asia, where it is believed to have originated. Possibly originating in Arabia, before moving up to Central Asia. Further downstream?
MT Haplogroup Branch H6a1a8
H6a1, based on studies of ancient DNA to date, most likely originated on the Pontic and Caspian Steppes of Asia. It has been found in the ancient DNA of human remains, from the Copper Age Steppe pastoralist Yamnaya Culture. H6a1 and H6a1a have both been found in the ancient DNA of human remains, from the Early Bronze Age East European Corded Ware Culture. No H6a1 or descendant branches have yet been recovered from earlier contexts in Europe.
Therefore it would appear that my mtDNA was carried into Europe from the Eurasian Steppes during the Early Bronze Age, as a part of the great Yamna expansion of that time. Most haplogroups associated with this expansion have been male Y haplogroups, which makes H6a1 of particular interest, because it was carried into Europe by Steppe women.
I haven't found enough current data on branch H6a1a8 to determine when or how it entered Lowland Britain, but it most likely formed during the Bronze or Iron Age, and so far, I've mainly seen North American and Austrasian H6a1a8 testers that feel that they most likely have British or Irish maternal ancestry.
I trace my direct maternal (mtDNA) line to my 6xgreat grandmother, Sarah Hardyman (nee Briting), who lived nearby at Bunwell, Norfolk, and was born circa 1725.
Okay, enough of my haplogroups, let's return to more auDNA evidence, and then look at Ancient Origins.
Other Third Party auDNA for ancestry analysis services
GedMatch.com. Eurogenes K13 (using my 23andMe data)
On Single Population Sharing, it rates my DNA against the closest references. In order of closest to not so close, the top five are:
On four populations admixing?
3 Norwegian + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 2.216714
4 Danish + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 2.225334
5 Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Swedish @ 2.230991
2 South_Dutch @ 4.559027
3 West_German @ 6.230592
4 Southwest_English @ 6.575822
5 Orcadian @ 7.239489
2 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + Swedish @ 1.919987
3 Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Swedish @ 1.928191
4 Southeast_English + Southeast_English + Spanish_Murcia + Swedish @ 1.955522
5 Norwegian + Portuguese + Southeast_English + Southeast_English @ 1.958800
Gedmatch.com. Eurogenes EU Test K15 (using my 23andMe data)
3 North_Dutch + Southwest_English + Spanish_Galicia + West_Scottish @ 1.282744
4 Southeast_English + Southwest_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + West_Norwegian @ 1.295819
5 North_Dutch + North_Dutch + Southwest_English + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 1.304939
DNA.land (3rd party auDNA raw file analysis)
23andMe V4 raw file for myself on DNA.land:
100% West Eurasian.
77% North West European
19% South European (broken into 13% Balkan / 6.1% South/Central European
FT-DNA FF raw file for myself on DNA.land:
100% West Eurasian
75% North West European
- 99.96% French
- 0.04% Others
My 2xgreat grandfather, Samuel "Fiddler" Curtis. Born at Hassingham, Norfolk in 1852.
My 2xgreat grandmother Sarah Thacker (nee Daynes), born at Besthorpe, Norfolk in 1845.
Image: Four generations of a Norfolk family. The baby is my aunt, holding her, grandmother Ivy, behind her, my great grandfather Sam Tammas-Tovell, the elderly lady, my 2xgreat grandmother Eliza Tammas-Tovell (nee Lawn) born at Tunstall, Norfolk in 1849.
My late grandfather "Krewjer" Curtis, holding my young mother. On crutches behind them, my great grandmother Flo' Curtis (nee Key) born at Freethorpe, Norfolk in 1885.
Ancient Origins (auDNA calculators)
23andMe V4 chip
Neanderthal ancestry 2.9% DNA (82nd percentile) 23andMe average European tester is 2.7%
WeGene analysis of above 23andMe raw data
3.325% Neanderthal proportion of more than 81.94% of the users WeGene (Chinese based DNA service).
Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherer ancestry
My Y line as we have seen, was most likely in the area of modern day Iran or Iraq, perhaps in the Euphrates and Tigris valleys, or perhaps in the Zagros Mountains, hunting animals such as the Ibex. My mt-DNA line was most likely in a hunter-gatherer band somewhere in Asia. Perhaps Central Asia. What about my other Ice Age ancestors?
David Wesolowski's K7 Basal-rich test
The Villabruna cluster represents the DNA found in 13 individuals in Europe from after 14,000 years ago. They were Late Ice Age hunter-gatherers. They appear to have links with the Near East. The current thought is that they replaced earlier groups of hunter-gatherers in Europe. The DNA of people in the Middle East and Europe pulled together at this time, and they may represent an expansion from the South-East. Much of the Aegean Sea would have been dry, with low sea levels (glaciation), so the migration may have been easy. It is believed that they had dark skin, and blue eyes. They were possibly, the last hunter-gatherers of Europe and the Middle East. They may have contributed to our DNA both through or either, later Asian or European admixtures.
David gives the English average as 56.7%. My result is 57.1%
The Basal Eurasians are a hypothetical "ghost" population derived from DNA studies. It is suggested that they splintered from other modern humans 45,000 years ago, presumably outside of Africa, somewhere around the Middle East. They significantly contributed DNA to the Early Neolithic Farmers of the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia, and consequently, on to all of us modern West Eurasians.
David gives the English average as 26.5%. My result is 28.8%
Ancient North Eurasian
Another Ice Age hunter-gatherer "Ghost" population, but this one has been associated with human remains and an Upper Palaeolithic culture (Mal'ta-Buret') at Lake Baikal, Siberia. We know that it significantly contributes to modern West Eurasians, through earlier admixture on the Eurasian Steppes. Copper Age pastoralists then carried it westwards into Europe with their later expansion.
David gives the English average as 16.6%. My result is 14.0%
Neolithic and Bronze Age mix ancestry
My Y line at this time as we have seen, may well been Early Neolithic Farmers in the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia. My mtDNA line would have most likely have been women of the Yamnaya culture on the Eurasian Steppes, in Copper Age pastoralist tribes.
Global 10 Test
The recent Global 10 test, run by my friend Helgenes50 of the Anthrogenica board, resulted in:
- 55% Baalberge_MN (European Middle Neolithic)
- 38% Yamna_Samara (Eurasian Steppe Pastoralist)
- 7% Loschbour:Loschbour (Late Eurasian hunter-gatherer)
That is 55% European Neolithic Farmer, 38% Yamnaya Steppe Pastoralist, and 7% European hunter-gatherer.
Alternatively, the FT-DNA test, although many in the population genetics community feel that it is unreliable:
FT-DNA My Ancient Origins
- 9% Metal Age Invader
- 47% Farmer
- 44% Hunter-Gatherer
- 0% Non European
GEDMatch Ancient Calculators
- 31% Neolithic (modeled on genomes of first neolithic farmers of Anatolia)
- 25% Northeast European (ancestry in North-Eastern Europe based on older type of ancestry (WHG, west European Hunter-Gatherer)
- 22% Steppe (sourced from ancient genome of European Bronze Age pastoralists)
- 22% Caucasian (derived from genomes of mesolithic Caucasian Hunter-gatherers)
My Eurasia K9 ASI Oracle:
- 39% Western Hunter-Gatherer
- 27% Early Neolithic Farmer
- 15% Eastern Hunter-Gatherer
- 12% Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer
- 7% SW Asian
- 1% Siberian East Asian
My MDLP Modern K11 Oracle:
Admix Results (sorted):
Using 1 population approximation:
1 British_Celtic @ 6.948432
2 Bell_Beaker_Germany @ 8.143357
3 Alberstedt_LN @ 8.426399
4 British_IronAge @ 9.027687
5 Halberstadt_LBA @ 10.273615
6 Bell_Beaker_Czech @ 12.190828
7 Hungary_BA @ 12.297826
8 Nordic_MN_B @ 12.959966
9 British_AngloSaxon @ 12.993559
10 Nordic_BA @ 13.170285
1 Bell_Beaker_Germany + Bell_Beaker_Germany + Corded_Ware_Germany + Hungary_CA @ 1.085814
2 BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Corded_Ware_Estonia + Hungary_CA @ 1.089547
3 Alberstedt_LN + Bell_Beaker_Germany + Corded_Ware_Germany + Hungary_CA @ 1.117882
4 Bell_Beaker_Germany + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Srubnaya_LBA @ 1.149613
5 Bell_Beaker_Germany + British_IronAge + Hungary_CA + Karsdorf_LN @ 1.185312
6 Alberstedt_LN + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Sintashta_MBA @ 1.226794
7 Nordic_BattleAxe + Hungary_BA + Hungary_CA + Karsdorf_LN @ 1.234930
8 Nordic_BattleAxe + BenzigerodeHeimburg_LN + Hungary_CA + Unetice_EBA @ 1.238376
9 Alberstedt_LN + Hungary_BA + Hungary_CA + Yamnaya_Samara_EBA @ 1.247371
10 Bell_Beaker_Germany + Hungary_CA + Nordic_LN + Srubnaya_LBA @ 1.268124
My Gedrosia K15 Oracle:
- 40% Western Hunter-Gatherer
- 25% Early European Farmer
- 21% Caucasus
- 5% Burusho
- 5% SW Asian
- 3% Balochi
- 1% Siberian
Ancient Eurasia K6 Oracle:
- 40% West European Hunter-Gatherer
- 39% Natufian
- 21% Ancient North Eurasian
- 1% East Asian
Finally, Generation 1. In an Orcadian Cairn, 2016. Thank you for taking an interest.
Some recent Documentary Genealogy Posts
My 2xgreat grandmother Emily Smith (nee Barber), with her son Sid Smith in Norwich. Emily was born 1859 at Hedenham, Norfolk.
What did my 3 x great grandfathers do for a living?
3 x great grandfather 1. John Brooker. Shepherd, and an agricultural labourer. Born 1820 at Rotherfield Peppard, Oxfordshire, lived later in life in the surrounding villages of Harpsden and Shiplake. Married Mary Ann in 1845, they had ten children. He died in 1912.
3 x great grandfather 2. Henry Shawers. Harrow Weaver. Born about 1826, the son of a copper smith, I have still not found their origins. He lived in the East End of London. He married Elizabeth at Bethnal Green, London in 1857, and they had at least two children, while they were living at Haggerston, London.
3 x great grandfather 3. William _____. Miller. Born 1815 at the village of Saham Toney in Norfolk. He was named as the father of my illegitimate born great great grandfather. At the time, William was a journeyman miller, and he had been married to another woman less than a year.
3 x great grandfather 4. William _____. Shoemaker. Born 1820 at East Dereham, Norfolk. He was named as the father of my illegitimate born great great grandmother. She recorded him as her father on her marriage registry entry.
3 x great grandfather 5. Robert Smith. Umbrella maker. Born 1807 at Attleborough, Norfolk. He lived as far as I can tell, all of his life in Attleborough. He married Lydia there in 1827. They had six children, until her death in 1844. Robert then married Frances.
3 x great grandfather 6. David Peach. Shepherd and a drover. Born 1807 at Maxey, Cambridgeshire. Maybe as a drover, he met my 3xgreat grandmother, Sarah, from Norfolk. He took her back to the Etton area. They married at Holywell, Lincolnshire, in 1835. They had one daughter, my ancestor. However, shortly after, David was convicted at Lincoln Assizes of stealing two steers. He was transported as a convict for life to Van Diemens Land (Tasmania).
3 x great grandfather 7. Robert Barber. Agricultural labourer. Lived at St Michael, South Elmham, Suffolk.
3 x great grandfather 8. James Ellis. Agricultural labourer. Born (1812) and lived at Hempnall, Norfolk. Married Esther. They had nine children.
3 x great grandfather 9. William Curtis. Agricultural labourer. Born at Strumpshaw, Norfolk in 1830. Married Georgianna in 1852 at Hassingham. They had nine children. William died in 1926.
3 x great grandfather 10. Robert Rose. Agricultural labourer. Born 1829 at Lingwood, Norfolk. He married Sarah Ann at Limpenhoe in 1853. They had eight children. Robert died in 1908.
3 x great grandfather 11. William Key. Agricultural labourer. Born 1804 surprisingly, in the City of Norwich, Norfolk. I suspect that the family were not there for long. He married Mary in 1823 at Freethorpe, Norfolk. They had five children. William died in 1869.
3 x great grandfather 12. Richard Goffen. Inn Keeper and Master Carpenter. Born 1795 at Reedham, Norfolk, where he appears to have lived out his life. Down by the river, he may have been one of the carpenters working on the wherry vessels. When he married my ancestor Elizabeth at Reedham, Norfolk in 1843, he was already a widower and 26 years her senior! However, Elizabeth gave him seven children. Richard died a happy man in 1866.
3 x great grandfather 13. James Tovell. Agricultural labourer and farm bailiff. Born 1815 at Geldeston, Norfolk. He married Mary at Chedgrave, Norfolk in 1841. They lived around the Loddon, Norfolk area for a while, before crossing the river Yare, and settling at Halvergate, Norfolk, by the marshes. Mary gave him seven children, including two before marriage. James died at Halvergate in 1900.
3 x great grandfather 14. William Lawn. Agricultural labourer. Born 1804 at Halvergate, Norfolk. He married Elizabeth in 1831 at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. She gave him five children. William passed away in 1885.
3 x great grandfather 15. The missing one. My only unrecorded 3 x great grandparent. The unrecorded biological father of my illegitimate born ancestor at Rackheath, Norfolk. The mother was Sarah Thacker, who was born at Salhouse, Norfolk, in 1823.
3 x great grandfather 16. Reuben Daynes. Agricultural labourer. Born 1822 at Brandon Parva, Norfolk. He moved to Besthorpe, Norfolk, and married Sarah in 1848. She gave him six children. Reuben died in 1908.